This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Albee, G. W.Mental health manpower trends. New York: Basic Books, 1959.
Albee, G. W. The relation of conceptual models to manpower needs. In E. L. Cowen, E. A. Gardner, & M. Zax (Eds.),Emergent approaches to mental health problems. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1967.
American Red Cross.Service models for the future: 1979 annual report. Washington, D.C.: American National Red Cross, 1979.
Aronfreed, J. The socialization of altruistic and sympathetic behavior: some theoretical and experimental analyses. In J. Macauley & L. Berkowitz (Eds.),Altruism and helping behavior. New York: Academic Press, 1970.
Bakal, C.Charity U.S.A. New York: Times Books, 1979.
Bergin, A. E., & Lambert, M. J. The evaluation of therapeutic outcomes. In S. L. Garfield & A. E. Bergin (Eds.),Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change: An empirical Analysis (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley, 1978.
Brozan, N. Volunteerism: New paths.New York Times, June 3, 1979.
Cook, J. Is charity obsolete?Forbes, February 5, 1979, pp. 45–51.
Cottrell, L. S. Social planning, the competent community and mental health. InUrban America and the planning of mental health services. New York: Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry, 1964.
Devereux, E. C. Community participation and leadership.Journal of Social Issues, 1960,16, 29–45.
Dohrenwend, B. S. Social stress and community psychology,American Journal of Community Psychology, 1978,6, 1–14.
Durlak, J. A. Comparative effectiveness of paraprofessional and professional helpers.Psychological Bulletin, 1979,86, 80–92.
Ellis, S. J., & Noyes, K. H.By the people: A history of Americans as volunteers. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1978.
Frisch, M. B. A psychologist/volunteer looks at the relationship between youth and the Red Cross. In theLeague of Red Cross Societies' Youth Newsletter, Geneva, Switzerland: League of Red Cross Societies, 1979.
Gottlieb, D. The socialization and politicization of Vista volunteers: Sex and generational differences,Journal of Voluntary Action Research, 1974,3, 19.
Grosser, C. Manpower development programs. In C. Grosser, W. E. Henry, & J. G. Kelly (Eds.),Nonprofessionals in the human services. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1969.
Hoffman, M. L. Empathy, role-taking, guilt, and the development of altruistic motives. In T. Lickona (Ed.),Moral development and behavior. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1976.
Holland, J. H.Keynote address. Paper presented at the American Red Cross National Convention, Los Angles, May 1980.
Hollingshead, A. B., & Redlich, F. C.Social class and mental illness. New York: Wiley, 1958.
Iscoe, I. Community psychology and the competent community.American Psychologist, 1970,25, 524–531.
Katz, D., & Kahn, R. L.The social psychology of organizations (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley, 1978.
Lasch, C.The culture of narcissism. New York: W. W. Norton, 1978.
Lorion, R. P. Research on psychotherapy and behavior change with the disadvantaged: past, present, and future directions. In S. L. Garfield & A. E. Bergin (Eds.),Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change: An empirical analysis. New York: Wiley, 1978.
Maslow, A. H.Motivation and personality. New York: Harper & Row, 1954.
Mussen, P., & Eisenberg-Berg, N.Roots of caring, sharing, and helping: The development of prosocial behavior in children. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman, 1977.
Riessman, F. The “helper therapy” principle.Social Work, 1965,10, 27–32.
Smith, D. H., Reddy, R. D., & Baldwin, B. R.Voluntary action research: 1972. Lexington, Mass: Lexington Books, 1972.
Smith, L. Women as volunteers: The double subsidy.Journal of Voluntary Action Research, 1975,4, 119–136.
Sobey, F.The nonprofessional revolution in mental health. New York: Columbia University Press, 1970.
Task Panel on Community Support Systems. President's Commission on Mental Health,Report to the President (Vol. 2). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1978.
Weinstein, R. S., Gibbs, J. T., & Middlestadt, S. E. College students in human service agencies: perceptions of their impact on the setting.American Journal of Community Psychology, 1979,7, 209–221.
Yarrow, M. R., & Zahn-Waxler, C. The emergence and functions of prosocial behaviors in young children. In R. Smart & M. Smart (Eds.),Readings in child development and relationships (2nd ed.). New York: MacMillan, 1977.
Zax, M., & Specter, G. A.An introduction to community psychology. New York: Wiley, 1974.
The authors would like to thank the American Red Cross, National Office of Systems Analysis, Information and Statistics for their invaluable assistance in conducting this survey, and to commend the Red Cross for its willingness to examine the important issues addressed in this survey.
About this article
Cite this article
Frisch, M.B., Gerrard, M. Natural helping systems: A survey of Red Cross volunteers. Am J Commun Psychol 9, 567–579 (1981). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00896477
- Social Psychology
- Health Psychology