A lead-zirconate-titanate ceramic is used in an electrically controllable diffraction (ECD) grating for reflection of parallel polarized light. The ECD grating used consists of a PZT ceramic with ten pairs of interdigital electrodes having 400 μm period on its surface. The characteristics of the grating and its application to an optical modulator are demonstrated experimentllly with a He−Ne 0.63 μm laser, obtaining a modulation of 60% with the applied peak voltage of 60 V at 24 kHz signal for the incident angle of 60°.
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Sato, H., Toda, K. An application of Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 Ceramic to opto-electronic devices. Appl. Phys. 13, 25–28 (1977). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00890715