The effect of electron-electron interactions on the surface states of ionicd-band oxides is reported. The local density of states of surface cations in the valence band region is significantly increased when surface states occur in the band gap. Coulomb repulsion associated with thissurface enhanced covalency tends to force surface states out of the band gap. These results suggest an explanation of recent experiments on SrTiO3 and TiO2.
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Wolfram, T., Ellialtioğlu, Ş. Surface enhanced covalency and its effect on the surface states ofd-band metal oxides. Appl. Phys. 13, 21–24 (1977). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00890714