This study examines the extent to which business students from Canada, Japan, Hong Kong, and Taiwan react differently to ethical dilemmas involving employees, supervisors, customers, suppliers, and business rivals. The empirical results show that the national origin of the students does have an impact on their reactions to particular ethical dilemmas. In addition, the results indicate that controlling for the problem of social desirability response bias is important to ensure the validity of the empirical findings.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Adler, N.: 1991,International Dimension of Organizational Behavior (Kent Publishing Company, Boston).
Allaire, Y. and M. E. Firsirotu: 1984, ‘Theories of Organizational Culture’,Organization Studies 5(3), 193–226.
Barnett, J. H. and M. Karson: 1989, ‘Managers, Values, and Executive Decisions: An Exploration of the Rule of Gender, Career Stage, Organization Level, Function, and the Importance of Ethics, Relationships and Results in Managerial Decision Making’,Journal of Business Ethics 8, 747–771.
Becker, H. and D. J. Fritzsche: 1987, ‘Business Ethics: A Cross-cultural Comparison of Managers' Attitudes’,Journal of Business Ethics 6, 289–295.
Betz, M., L. O'Connell and J. M. Shepard: 1989, ‘Gender Differences in Proclivity for Unethical Behavior’,Journal of Business Ethics 8, 321–324.
Bommer, M., C. Gratto, J. Gravander and M. Tuttle: 1987, ‘A Behavioral Model of Ethical and Unethical Decision Making’,Journal of Business Ethics 6, 265–280.
Child, J.: 1981, ‘Contingency and Capitalism in the Crossnational Study of Organizations’, in L. Cummings and B. Staw (eds.),Research in Organizational Behavior (JAI Press Inc., Greenwich, CT), 303–356.
Chonko, L. B. and S. D. Hunt: 1985, ‘Ethics and Marketing Management: an Empirical Examination’,Journal of Business Research 13, 839–859.
Chuang, J. and I. Ng: 1991, ‘A Comparative Analysis of Managerial Activities and Practices between Canada and Japan’,International Symposium on Pacific Asian Business (PAMI, University of Hawaii at Manoa).
Crowne, D. P. and D. Marlowe: 1960, ‘A New Scale of Social Desirability Independent of Psychopathology’,Journal of Consulting Psychology 24, 349–354.
De George, R.: 1990,Business Ethics (MacMillan, Ont.).
Doktor, R. H.: 1990, ‘Asian and American CEOs: A Comparative Study’,Organizational Dynamics 18, 46–56.
Edelmann, R. J., J. Asendorpf, A. Contraello, J. Georgas and C. Villaneuva: 1989, ‘Self-reported Expression of Embarrassment in Five European Cultures’,Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 20(4), 357–371.
Edwards, A.: 1953, ‘The Relationship between the Judged Desirability of a Trait and the Probability that the Trait Will Be Endorsed’,Journal of Applied Psychology 37, 90–93.
Fernandes, M. F. and D. Randall: 1992, ‘The Nature of Social Desirability Response Effects in Ethics Research’,Business Ethics Quarterly 2(2), 183–205.
Fritzsche, D. J.: 1988, ‘An Examination of Marketing Ethics: Role of the Decision Maker, Consequences of the Decision, Management Position, and Sex of the Respondent’,Journal of Marketing 8(2), 29–39.
Ganster, D. C., H. W. Hennessy and F. Luthans: 1983, ‘Social Desirability Response Effects: Three Alternative Models’,Academy of Management Journal 26(3), 321–331.
Harris, J. R.: 1990, ‘Ethical Values of Individuals at Different Levels in the Organizational Hierarchy of a Single Firm’,Journal of Business Ethics 9, 741–750.
Hofstede, G.: 1980a,Culture's Consequences (Sage Publications, Beverly Hills).
Hofstede, G.: 1980b, ‘Motivation, Leadership, and Organization: Do American Theories Apply Abroad?’,Organizational Dynamics 9(1), 42–63.
Hofstede, G.: 1983, ‘The Cultural Relativity of Organizational Practices and Theories’,Journal of International Business Studies 14(2), 75–89.
Hofstede, G. 1985, ‘The Interaction Between National and Organizational Value Systems’,Journal of Management Studies 22(4), 347–357.
Hofstede, G. and M. H. Bond: 1988, ‘The Confucius Connection: From Cultural Roots to Economic Growth’,Organizational Dynamics 16(4), 5–21.
Hofstede, G., B. Neuijen, D. Daval Ohayv and G. Sanders: 1990, ‘Measuring Organizational Cultures: A Qualitative and Quantitative Study Across Twenty Cases’,Administrative Science Quarterly 35, 286–316.
Hunt, S. D. and S. Vitell: 1986, ‘A General Theory of Marketing Ethics’,Journal of Macromarketing 6(1), 5–16.
Kale, S. H.: 1991, ‘Culture-specific Marketing Communications: An Analytical Approach’,International Marketing Review 8(2), 18–30.
Kale, S. H. and R. P. McIntyre: 1991, ‘Distribution Channel Relationships in Diverse Cultures’,International Marketing Review 8(3), 31–45.
Kohlberg, L.: 1969, ‘Stage and Sequence: The Cognitive Developmental Approach to Socialization’, in D. Grosling (ed.),Handbook of Socialization Theory and Research (Rand-McNally, Chicago, IL), pp. 347–380.
Lee, K. H.: 1981, ‘Ethical Beliefs in Marketing Management: A Cross-Cultural Study’,European Journal of Marketing 15(1), 58–67.
Longnecker, J. G., J. A. McKinney and C. W. Moore: 1989, ‘The Generation Gap in Business Ethics’,Business Horizons 32(5), 9–14.
Lysonski, S. and G. William: 1991, ‘A Cross-Cultural Comparison of the Ethics of Business Students’,Journal of Business Ethics 10, 141–150.
Matsumoto, D.: 1989, ‘Cultural Influences on the Perception of Emotion’,Journal of Cross-cultural Psychology 20(1), 92–105.
Miller, M.: 1991, ‘A Cross-National Comparison of Business Ethics in Canada and Japan’,Thesis Proposal (College of Commerce, University of Saskatchewan).
Orpen, C.: 1987, ‘The Attitudes of United States and South African Managers to Corporate Social Responsibility’,Journal of Business Ethics 8, 89–96.
Peters T. and R. Waterman: 1982,In Search of Excellence (Harper & Row).
Preble J. and A. Rachel: 1988, ‘Attitudes Towards Business Ethics of Future Managers in the U.S. and Israel’,Journal of Business Ethics 7, 941–949.
Randall, D. M. and M. F. Fernandes: 1991, ‘The Social Desirability Response Bias in Ethics Research’,Journal of Business Ethics 10, 805–817.
Reilly B. J. and M. J. Kyj: 1990, ‘Ethical Business and the Ethical Person’,Business Horizons, Nov–Dec, 23–27.
Tsalikis, J. and O. Nwachukwu: 1988, ‘Cross-Cultural Business Ethics: Ethical Beliefs Differences Between Blacks and Whites’,Journal of Business Ethics 7, 745–754.
Tsalikis, J. and O. Nwachukwu: 1991, ‘A Comparison of Nigerian to American Views of Bribery and Extortion in International Commerce’,Journal of Business Ethics 10, 85–98.
Waters, J. A., F. Bird and P. D. Chant: 1986, ‘Everyday Moral Issue Experienced by Managers’,Journal of Business Ethics 5, 373–384.
Westwood R. G. and J. E. Everett: 1987, ‘Culture's Consequences: A Methodology for Comparative Management Studies in Southeast Asia?’,Asia Pacific Journal of Management 4, 187–202.
About this article
Cite this article
Nyaw, M., Ng, I. A comparative analysis of ethical beliefs: A four country study. J Bus Ethics 13, 543–555 (1994). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00881299
- Economic Growth
- Comparative Analysis
- Empirical Result
- Social Desirability