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Renal excretory responses to single and repeated administration of diuretics in healthy subjects: Clinical connotations

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Administration of an initial oral dose of hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg to healthy subjects is followed by increased 24-hour urinary outputs of sodium, chloride, and potassium. On the fourth day of once-daily dosing with hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg, 24-hour natriuresis and chloriuresis are no longer augmented, but the elevation in 24-hour kaliuresis that follows the first dose remains unchanged. Twenty-four-hour urinary calcium output is consistently reduced during repeated once-daily administration of hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg.

The first oral dose of the loop diuretic torasemide augments the average natriuresis and kaliuresis in the 6 hours immediately after dosing in healthy subjects, in a dose-dependent fashion, within the 2.5 to 10-mg range. These increased urinary outputs are followed by rebounds below postplacebo values between 6 and 24 hours after dosing. As a result of this biphasic response, torasemide 2.5 mg qualifies as a nondiuretic formulation (it does not elevate 24-hour natriuresis), whereas torasemide 5 and 10 mg qualify as diuretic formulations. After the seventh dose of torasemide 5 or 10 mg during a regimen of once-daily therapy, 24-hour urinary sodium and chloride outputs no longer differ from their postplacebo counterparts. Twenty-four-hour kaliuresis tends to increase in a dose-dependent fashion after the first dose of torasemide (torasemide 2.5 and 5 mg do not augment it significantly), but this tendency is no longer present after the seventh once-daily dose, when torasemide (2.5, 5, or 10 mg) does not elevate the mean 24-hour kaliuresis. Twenty-four-hour calciuresis tends to increase in a dose-dependent manner (torasemide 2.5 mg does not elevate it significantly) after the first dose of torasemide; this calciuretic effect does not change in intensity after 7 days of once-daily treatment.

The time course of natriuresis over the 24 hours following the administration of any given formulation of a loop or of an early distal tubular diuretic to healthy subjects is alike after the first and after thenth once-daily dose; therefore, it constitutes a definite characteristic of any given oral formulation. In the case of torasemide, lower doses have more protracted effects on natriuresis, to the extent that the time course of natriuresis over the 24 hours after administration of torasemide 2.5 mg to healthy subjects resembles the time course after administration of hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg, rather than the time course after administration of the overtly diuretic formulation torasemide 10 mg.

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Reyes, A.J., Leary, W.P. Renal excretory responses to single and repeated administration of diuretics in healthy subjects: Clinical connotations. Cardiovasc Drug Ther 7, 29–44 (1993).

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Key Words

  • diuretics
  • hydrochlorothiazide
  • kaliuresis
  • natriuresis
  • thiazides
  • torasemide
  • urinary calcium
  • urinary chloride
  • urinary potassium
  • urinary sodium