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Effect of occurrence rate of acoustic emissions on their statistical behavior

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Abstract

The parameterm in Ishimoto-Iida's relation was investigated for acoustic emissions (AEs) occurring in rock samples under uniaxial compression. In the experiment, we found: 1) The large AEs are counted without serious error but the number of small AEs is systematically underestimated at high AE rates, 2) the frequency distribution of maximum AE amplitudes becomes nonlinear in logarithmic scale with increasing AE rate, and 3) there exists a strong negative correlation betweenm-value and AE rate. The miscount of small AEs was interpreted as due to overlap of the large and small AEs. We call the miscount “masking effect”. A statistical analysis based on the masking effect showed that them-value decreases more effectively as the AE rate increases, and thus the masking effect is a possible origin both for the nonlinear frequency distribution of maximum AE amplitudes and for the negative correlation ofm-value with AE rate. We emphasize that one should be careful of the masking effect to examine correctly the change, ofm-value. In order to eliminate the masking effect, AEs should be measured by a measurement system with low sensitivity. Even if the masking effect is eliminated, them-value decreases before the main fracture of a rock sample. Them-value is a key parameter to predict the main fracture.

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Oda, H., Koami, H. & Seya, K. Effect of occurrence rate of acoustic emissions on their statistical behavior. PAGEOPH 130, 5–29 (1989). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00877734

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Key words

  • Acoustic emission (AE)
  • masking effect
  • m-value
  • AE rate
  • time interval distribution of AEs