Three sets of experiments are described. The first set concerns the detection of the 3-D possibility of shaded 2-D block patterns. The data indicate that the human perceptual system is able to do this above chance level, but in a specific and restricted way, which suggests the possibility of a module devoted to it. The second set concerns the determination of the 3-D orientation of coloured 2-D patterns. The data show that the human perceptual system uses physical constraints of colour mixing in doing this. Again, the mechanism seems to have characteristics suggesting modularity. The third set is about the detection of skewed symmetry in dot patterns. Skewed symmetry can be used as a source of information about the slant and tilt of a surface with bilateral symmetry present on it. Therefore, a module for recovering this information might exist.
All these empirical data show that Fodor's criteria of modularity can be used to test hypotheses about visual mechanisms recovering 3-D information from 2-D inputs. But this does not imply that the results prove modularity and cannot be interpreted otherwise. As an exercise the same story about these experiments is told with the use of jargon from ecological realism and connectionist approaches. It is concluded that some of the approaches to some perceptual mechanisms are not as divergent as they might seem. The main theme underlying modular, connectionist, and ecological approaches is the avoidance of central intelligence agencies by the incorporation of physical constraints. Within this broad framework different questions can be asked and answers attempted that may depend on personal taste.
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Wagemans, J. “Smart” mechanisms emerging from cooperation and competition between modules. Psychol. Res 52, 181–196 (1990). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00877527
- Empirical Data
- Main Theme
- Chance Level
- Intelligence Agency
- Physical Constraint