Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Effects of pore fluid chemistry on stable sliding of Berea sandstone

Abstract

Single-cycle and multiple-cycle frictional-sliding experiments were employed to evaluate the effects of pore fluid environments on yield strength, frictional-sliding dynamics, and gouge production and morphology. Circular right cylinders cored from Berea sandstone sawcut at 35° to the axes were saturated in water, an inorganic brine, and various anionic, cationic, and nonionic aqueous surface-active agents. Samples were deformed under an effective confining pressure of 50 MPa and an axial strain rate of 6×10−5 sec−1 until a 2% axial strain beyond yield (defined as the onset of sliding) was achieved. All samples were displaced by stable sliding. In the single-cycle tests the unsaturated and water-saturated samples displayed small stress peaks at yield. During stable sliding samples saturated with DTAB and SDS displayed slight increases in differential stress and statistically significant higher frictional coefficients than other environments (including water) but were very similar in behavior to dry, unsaturated samples. In the multiple-cycle tests, samples were loaded to 2% strain beyond yield and unloaded to a differential stress of approximately 5–10 MPa a total of four times. These results further suggest that DTAB exerts a ‘strengthening’ effect on the sandstone relative to water which, to a limiting value, increased with displacement. The DTAB and SDS environments also produced a coarser grain-size distribution in the gouge relative to gouge produced in the other environments. Investigation of the gouge by scanning electron microscope revealed that these larger ‘grains’ were composed of dense, apparently cemented aggregates of ultrafine, platy quartz particles.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Atkinson, B. (1984),Subcritical Crack Growth in Geologic Materials. Presented at U.S.G.S. Conference on the Role of Water in Crustal Deformation, Carmel, CA, J. Geophys. Res., in press.

  2. Aydn, A. (1983), Personal communication about work done in the Sierra Nevadas for the U.S.G.S.

  3. Boozer, G., Hiller, K., andSerdengecti, S. (1963),Effects of Pore Fluid on the Deformational Behavior of Rocks Subject to Triaxial Compression, Proc. Rock Mech. Symp. 5th.

  4. Brace, W., andByerlee, J. (1970),Stick-slip as a Mechanism for Earthquakes, Science153, 990.

  5. Brace, W., andMartin, R. (1968),A Test of the Law of Effective Stress, Int. J. Rock Mech. Bull.5, 415–426.

  6. Dieterich, J. (1979),Modeling of Rock Friction, Parts I and II, J. Geophys. Res.84, 2161–2175.

  7. Dieterich, J. (1984),Control of Time and Velocity-Dependent Friction in Rocks by Adsorbed Water. Presented at U.S.G.S. Conferene on the Role of Water in Crustal Deformation, J. Geophys. Res., in press.

  8. Dunning, J., andMiller, M. (1983),The Effect of Pore Fluid Chemistry on Stick-Slip/Stable Sliding in Sandstone, Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union, EOS64 (45), 863.

  9. Dunning, J., Petrovski, D., Schuyler, J., andOwens, A. (1984),Effects of Aqueous Chemical Environments on Crack Propagation in Quartz. Presented at U.S.G.S. Conference on the Role of Water in Crustal Deformation, J. Geophys. Res., in press.

  10. Engelder, T., Logan, T., andHandin, J. (1975),The Sliding Characteristics of Sandstone on Quartz Fault Gouge, Pure Appl. Geophys.113, 69–86.

  11. Enustun, B., andTurkevich, J. (1960),Solubility of Fine Particles of Strontium Sulfate, J. Amer. Chem. Soc.84, 4502–4509.

  12. Freiman, S. (1984),Effects of Chemical Environments on Slow Crack Growth. Presented at U.S.G.S. Conference on the Role of Water in Crustal Deformation, J. Geophys. Res., in press.

  13. Fuerstenau, D. (1970),Interfacial Processes in Mineral/Water Systems, Pure Appl. Chem.24, 135–164.

  14. Gibbs, J.,The Collected Works of J. W. Gibbs, Vol.1 (Yale University Press, New Haven 1984).

  15. Healy, J., Rubey, W., Griggs, E., andRaleigh, C. (1968),The Denver Earthquake, Science161, 1301–1310.

  16. Higgs, N. (1981),Mechanical Properties of Ultrafine Quartz, Chlorite, Bentonite in Environments of the Upper Crust. Ph.D. dissertation, 267 pp., Texas A & M University, College Station, TX.

  17. Logan, J., Higgs, N., andFriedman, M. (1981),Laboratory Studies on Natural Fault Gouge From the Dry Lake Valley No. 1 Well, Amer. Geophys. Union, Monograph 24, pp. 121–134.

  18. Logan, J., andBlackwell, M. (1983),The Influence of Chemically-Active Fluids on the Frictional Properties of Sandstones, Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union, EOS64 (45), 835.

  19. Noll, L. (1983), Personal communication: DOE Bartlesville OK BETC.

  20. O'Connor, D., andSanders, J. (1956),Hydrophobic Monolayers on Platinum, Mica, and Silica, J. Colloid Sci.11, 158–166.

  21. Pollard, D. (1983), Personal communication about work done in the Sierra Nevadas for the U.S.G.S.

  22. Ruina, A. (1980),Friction Laws and Instabilities. Ph.D. dissertation, Brown University, 99 pp., Providence, RI.

  23. Schuyler, J. (1982),An Investigation of the Effects of Aqueous Chemical Environments on Hydraulic Fracture Morphology. M.S. thesis, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

  24. Schulyer, J., Owens, A., andDunning, J. (1981),The Role of Surface Energy in Chemical Weakening, Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union, EOS62 (45), 321.

  25. Silien, L., andMartell, A. (1964),Stability Constants of Metal Ion Complexes, The Chemical Society, 40, London.

  26. Swolfs, H. (1971),Chemical Effects of Pore Fluids on Rock Properties. Ph.D. dissertation, Texas A & M University, College Station, TX.

  27. Teufel, L., andLogan, J. (1978),Effect of Displacement Rate on the Real Contact Area and Temperature Generated During Frictional Sliding of Tennessee Sandstone, Pure Appl. Geophys.116, 840–865.

  28. Ter-Minassian Seraga, L. (1963),Chemisorption and Dewetting of Glass and Silica. InContact Angle Wettability and Adhesion, Adv. in Chem. Series, No. 43, pp. 232–249.

  29. Tullis, T., Personal communication, 1984.

  30. Tullis, T., andWeeks, J. (1983),Inverse Dependence of Frictional resistance on Sliding Velocity at Elevated Normal Stress, Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union, EOS64 (45), 850.

  31. Weeks, J., Tullis, T., andBechtel, T. (1983),Nonlinear Instability Effects in Rock Friction, Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union, EOS64 (45), 850.

  32. Westwood, A. (1974),Control and Application of Environment Sensitive Fracture Processes, J. Mat. Sci.9, 1871–1894.

  33. Wiederhorn, S., andJohnson, H. (1972),Effect ofElectrolyte pH on Crack Propagation in Glass, J. Amer. Cer. Soc.56, 192–198.

  34. Zoback, M., Tsukahara, H., andHickman, S. (1980),Stress Measurements at Depth in the Vicinity of the San Andreas Fault, J. Geophys. Res.85, 1657–1673.

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Dunning, J.D., Miller, M.E. Effects of pore fluid chemistry on stable sliding of Berea sandstone. PAGEOPH 122, 447–462 (1984). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00874611

Download citation

Key words

  • Pore fluid chemistry
  • Stable sliding
  • Fault gouge