Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

The relative importance of social responsibility in determining organizational effectiveness: Student responses II


This paper, Study II, is the second in a series of papers investigating the relative importance of social responsibility criteria in determining organizational effectiveness, using student samples. A revised version of the Organizational Effectiveness Menu was used as a questionnaire with a sample of 182 senior undergraduate and the MBA students from three universities. Each respondent was asked to rate the importance of the criteria from a manager's perspective. The results support the earlier findings that students responding as managers rate social responsibility criteria, individually and collectively, among the least important of the potential determinants of organizational effectiveness.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Abratt, R. and D. Sacks: 1988, ‘The Marketing Challenge: Towards Being Profitable and Socially Responsible’,Journal of Business Ethics 7, 497–507.

  2. Arlow, P. and T. A. Ulrich: 1980, ‘Business Ethics, Social Responsibility and Business Students: An Empirical Comparison of Clark's Study’,Akron Business and Economic Review 11(3), 17–23.

  3. Aupperle, K. E.: 1984, ‘An Empirical Measure Corporate Social Performance’,Research in Corporate Social Performance and Policy 6, 27–54.

  4. Aupperle, K. E., A.B. Carroll and J. D. Hatfield: 1985, ‘An Empirical Examination of the Relationship Between Corporate Social Responsibility and Profitability’,Academy of Management Journal 28(2), 446–463.

  5. Cameron, K. S.: 1986, ‘Effectiveness as Paradox: Consensus and Conflict in Conceptions of Organizational Effectiveness’,Management Science 32(5), 539–553.

  6. Cameron, K. S. and D. A. Whetton: 1983,Organizational Effectiveness: A Comparison of Multiple Models (Academic Press, New York, NY).

  7. Connolly, T., E. J. Conlon, and S. J. Deutsch: 1980, ‘Organizational Effectiveness: A Multiple-Constituency Approach’,Academy of Management Review 5(2), 211–217.

  8. Feldman, H. D. and R. C. Thompson: 1990, ‘Teaching Business Ethics: A Challenge for Business Education in the 1990s’,Journal of Marketing Education,12, 10–22.

  9. Ford, R. and F. McLaughlin: 1984, ‘Perceptions of Socially Responsible Activities and Attitudes: A Comparison of Business Deans and Corporate Chief Executives’,Academy of Management Journal 27, 666–674.

  10. Frederick, W. C., K. Davis, and J. E. Post: 1988,Business and Society: Corporate Strategy, Public Policy, Ethics (6th Ed., Ch. 2.) (McGraw-Hill, New York).

  11. Friedman, M. and R. Friedman: 1981,Free to Choose (Avon, New York).

  12. Gandz, J. and N. Hayes: 1988, ‘Teaching Business Ethics’,Journal of Business Ethics 7, 657–669.

  13. George, R. J.: 1987, ‘Teaching Business Ethics: Is There a Gap Between Rhetoric and Reality’,Journal of Business Ethics 6, 513–518.

  14. George, R. J.: 1988, ‘The Challenge of Preparing Ethically Responsible Managers: Closing the Rhetoric-Reality Gap’,Journal of Business Ethics 7, 715–720.

  15. Glueck, W. F. and L. R. Jauch: 1984,Strategic Management and Business Policy, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, NY).

  16. Goodman, C. S. and G. M. Crawford: 1974, ‘Young Executives: A Source of New Ethics?’,Personnel Journal (March), 180–187.

  17. Grant, E. W. Jr. and L. S. Broom: 1988, ‘Attitudes Toward Ethics: A View of the College Student’,Journal of Business Ethics 7, 617–619.

  18. Hollon, C. J. and T. A. Ulrich: 1979, ‘Personal Business Ethics: Managers vs. Managers-to-be’,Southern Business Review 5, 17–22.

  19. Holmes, S. L.: 1976, ‘Executive Perceptions of Corporate Social Responsibility’,Business Horizons 19(3), 34.

  20. Kraft, K. L.: 1990, ‘The Relative Importance of Social Responsibility in Determining Organizational Effectiveness: Student Responses’,Journal of Business Ethics 10, 179–188.

  21. Kraft, K. L.: 1991, ‘The Relative Importance of Social Responsibility in Determining Organizational Effectiveness: Managers from Two Service Industries’,Journal of Business Ethics 10, 485–491.

  22. Kraft, K. L. and J. Hage: 1989, ‘Strategy, Social Responsibility and Implementation’,Journal of Business Ethics 8, 11–19.

  23. Kraft, K. L. and L. R. Jauch: 1992, ‘The Organizational Effectiveness Menu: A Device for Stakeholder Assessment’,Mid-American Journal of Business 7–1, 18–23.

  24. Kraft, K. L. and A. Singhapakdi: 1991, ‘The Role of Business Ethics and Social Responsibility in Achieving Organizational Effectiveness: Students Versus Managers’,Journal of Business Ethics 10, 679–686.

  25. Luthans, F., R. M. Hodgetts, and K. R. Thompson: 1984,Social Issues in Business, 4th ed. (Macmillan, New York, NY).

  26. Mai-Dalton, R. R.: 1987, ‘The Experience of One Faculty Member in a Business Ethics Seminar: What Can We Take To The Classroom?’,Journal of Business Ethics 6, 509–511.

  27. Peterson, R. A., R. F. Beltramini, and Kozmetsky: 1991, ‘Concerns of College Students Regarding Business Ethics: A Replication’,Journal of Business Ethics 10, 733–738.

  28. Pressley, M. M. and D. E. Blevins: 1984, ‘Student Perceptions of “Job Politics” as Practiced by Those Climbing the Corporate Career Ladder’,Journal of Business Ethics 3, 127–138.

  29. Quinn, R. E. and J. Rohrbaugh: 1983, ‘A Spatial Model of Effectiveness Criteria: Towards a Competing Values Approach to Organizational Analysis’,Management Science 29(3), 363–377.

  30. Stead, B. A. and J. J. Miller: 1988, ‘Can Social Awareness be Increased Through Business Curricula?’,Journal of Business Ethics 7, 553–560.

  31. Stevens, G. A.: 1984a, ‘Ethical Inclinations of Tomorrow's Managers: Actions Speak Louder?’,Journal of Business Education 59 (Jan.), 147–152.

  32. Stevens, G. A.: 1984b, ‘Business Ethics and Social Responsibility: The Response of Present and Future Managers’,Akron Business and Economic Review 15 (Fall), 6–11.

  33. Tuleja, T.: 1985, ‘Beyond the Bottom Line: How Business Leaders are Managing Principles into Profits’, (Facts On File Publications, New York).

  34. Zahra, S. A. and M. S. LaTour: 1987, ‘Corporate Social Responsibility and Organizational Effectiveness: A Multivariate Approach’,Journal of Business Ethics 6, 459–467.

  35. Zikmund, W. G., W. J. Lundstrum and, D. Sciglimpaglia: 1980, ‘The Psychological Influence of Political Beliefs and Interpersonal Trust on College Students' Attitudes Towards Business Practices’,College Student Journal 14, 67–75.

Download references

Author information

Additional information

Dr. Kenneth L. Kraft is Director of Graduate studies at The University of Tampa. He has published numerous articles on Business Ethics, Organization Design, and Strategic Planning in journals such as theAcademy of Management Review, American Business Review, andJournal of Business Ethics. His current research interest centers on the measurement of moral intensity.

Dr. Anusorn Singhapakdi is Assistant of Marketing at Old Dominion University. His research has been primarily in marketing/business ethics. He has published in theJournal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Journal of Business Ethics, Journal of Macromarketing, Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, as well as various other journals and proceedings.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Kraft, K.L., Singhapakdi, A. The relative importance of social responsibility in determining organizational effectiveness: Student responses II. J Bus Ethics 14, 315–326 (1995).

Download citation


  • Economic Growth
  • Social Responsibility
  • Responsibility Criterion
  • Student Sample
  • Student Response