The present work describes the study of unsteady turbulent wake flows past two-dimensional square cylinders with and without planar jet injection into the vortex formation region. An experimental investigation provided LDV measurements of the mean and turbulent near and middle wake development at Reynolds numbers of 8520 and 14285 and for various jet to approach flow velocity ratios. In the computational work a Large Eddy Simulation employing the Smagorinsky subgrid scale model was initially performed for the higher Reynolds number plane wake configuration. Further, a hybrid phase-averaged Navier-Stokes model was formulated that encompasses aspects from both the LES formalism and the conventional eddy-viscosity procedures. Comparisons of the hybrid model calculations with the LES and measurements demonstrated the ability of the hybrid method to reproduce the range of complex unsteady flow phenomena studied here.
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- C :
- C D :
- C S :
Smagorinsky's model coefficient
- C P :
- C μ :
turbulent viscosity coefficient
- D :
square cylinder diameter
- f :
- H :
- k :
turbulence kinetic energy
- L,l :
turbulence length scales
- u,v,w :
- U 0 :
approach flow velocity
- P :
- S t :
- t 0 :
characteristic time (D/U 0)
- x i :
coordinate directions (i=1,2,3)
- δ ij :
Kronecker delta (δ ij =0 fori≠j;δ ij =1 fori=j)
- ν t :
- λ :
non-dimensional diffusion coefficient
- ρ :
- τ ij :
- \(\bar \cdot\) :
- \(\tilde \cdot\) :
grid-scale velocity (LES)
subgrid-scale fluctuation (LES)
- c :
explicitly (cumulatively) calculated
- i :
1, 2, 3 Cartesian coordinates
- i,j,k :
- t :
turbulent flow, total
subgrid (e.g.k SGS)
characteristic filter length
- ɛ :
turbulence energy dissipation rate
- ν :
- n :
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Koutmos, P., Mavridis, C. & Papailiou, D. A study of unsteady wake flows past a two-dimensional square cylinder with and without planar jet injection into the vortex formation region. Appl. Sci. Res. 55, 187–210 (1995). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00867511
- bluff-body wake flow
- LES of vortex shedding flow
- hybrid eddy-viscosity models