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Prostanoids in paediatric kidney diseases

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Abstract

Prostanoids belong to the growing family of eicosanoids, which are all derived from arachidonic acid. Prostanoids act as modulators and mediators in a large spectrum of physiological and pathophysiological processes within the kidney. On the one hand, the potent vasoconstrictor and platelet-aggregating thromboxane (TX) A2 is involved in the pathophysiology of a variety of glomerular diseases, such as haemolytic-uraemic syndrome and immune-mediated glomerulopathies. Prostaglandin (PG) E2, on the other hand, interferes with tubular electrolyte and water handling. Clinical data support the hypothesis that this member of the prostanoid family contributes to the pathophysiology of Bartter's syndrome, hyperprostaglandin E syndrome, idiopathic hypercalciuria and renal diabetes insipidus. Both prostanoids, TXA2 and PGE2, are involved in the pathophysiology of obstructive uropathies. The physiological and protective role of renal vasodilator prostanoids (PGI2 and PGE2) has been studied during treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Part of the pharmacological effects of frusemide and converting enzyme inhibitors is mediated by PGI2 and PGE2. The role of renal prostanoids in cyclosporine toxicity is still equivocal. Future investigations on the physiological and pathophysiological role of renal prostanoids will have to consider the multiple interactions between prostanoids on the one hand, and classical hormones and other mediators (e. g. cytokines) on the other hand.

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Correspondence to Hannsjörg W. Seyberth.

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Seyberth, H.W., Leonhardt, A., Tönshoff, B. et al. Prostanoids in paediatric kidney diseases. Pediatr Nephrol 5, 639–649 (1991). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00856660

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Key words

  • Prostanoids
  • Glomerular disease
  • Tubulopathy
  • Obstructive uropathy
  • Glucocorticoids
  • Cyclosporine
  • Frusemide
  • Converting enzyme inhibitor