Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Five- and six-year follow-up results from four seventh-grade smoking prevention strategies


Seven thousand one hundred twenty-four members of the Classes of 1985 and 1986 who had participated as seventh graders in one of several smoking prevention programs were tracked and surveyed for smoking habits at 5- and 6-year follow-up: participation exceeded 90% in both cohorts. These data indicated that participants who received seventh-grade interventions based on the social influences model had similar smoking patterns compared to participants in other conditions. This finding supports the call for booster sessions after the initial seventh-grade intervention program. Future follow-up studies will assess whether the earlier benefits associated with the social influences model will translate into measurable differences in adult smoking patterns.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Arkin, R. M., Roemhild, H. F., Johnson, C. A., Luepker, R. V., and Murray, D. M. (1981). The Minnesota smoking prevention program: A seventh grade health curriculum supplement.J. School Health 51(9): 611–616.

  2. Bandura, A. (1972).Social Learning Theory, Prentice Hall, Englewood, Cliffs, N.J.

  3. Biglan, A., Severson, H., Ary, D., Faller, C., Gallison, C., Thompson, R., Glasgow, R., and Lichtenstein, E. (1987). Do smoking prevention programs really work? Attrition and the internal and external validity of an evaluation of a refusal skills training program.J. Behav. Med. 10(2): 159–171.

  4. Bishop, Y. M. M., Feinberg, S. E., and Holland, P. W. (1975).Discrete Multivariate Analysis, MIT Press, Cambridge, pp. 131–136.

  5. Cook, T. D., and Campbell, D. T. (1979).Quasi-Experimentation, Design and Analysis Issues for Field Settings, Rand McNally, Chicago.

  6. Dixon, W. J., Brown, M. B., Engelman, L., Frane, J. W., Hill, M. A., Jennrich, R. I., and Toperek, J. D. (1983).BMDP Statistical Software, 1983 Printing with Additions, University of California Press, Berkeley.

  7. Flay, B. R. (1985). Psychosocial approaches to smoking prevention: A review of findings.Health Psychol. 4: 449–488.

  8. Glynn, T. J. (1989). Essential elements of school-based smoking prevention programs: Research results.J. School Health 59.

  9. Johnston, L. D., O'Malley, P. M., and Bachman, J. G. (1987). National Trends In Drug Use and Related Factors Among American High School Students and Young Adults, 1975–1986, DHHS Publication No. (ADM)87-1535. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

  10. Jones, E. E., Kanouse, D. E., Kelley, H. H., Nisbett, R. E., Valins, S., and Weiner, B. (1972).Attribution: Perceiving the Causes of Behavior, General Learning Press, Morristown, N.J.

  11. Luepker, R. V., Pallonen, U. E., Murray, D. M., and Pirie, P. L. (1989). Validity of telephone surveys in assessing cigarette smoking in young adults.Adults. Am. J. Pub. Health 79(2): 202–204.

  12. McGuire, W. J. (1964). Inducing resistance to persuasion. In Berkowitz, L. (ed.),Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 1st ed., Academic Press, New York.

  13. McGuire, W. J. (1969). The nature of attitudes and attitude change. In Lindzey, G., and Ellisson, E. (ed.),Handbook of Social Psychology, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., pp. 136–314.

  14. Murray, D. M., Luepker, R. V., Johnson, C. A., and Mittelmark, M. B. (1984). The prevention of cigarette smoking in children: A comparison of four strategies.J. Appl. Soc. Psychol. 14(3): 247–288.

  15. Murray, D. M., O'Connell, Catherine, M., Schmid, L. A., and Perry, C. L. (1987a). The validity of smoking self-reports by adolescents: A reexamination of the bogus pipeline procedure.Addict. Behav. 12: 7–15.

  16. Murray, D. M., Richards, P. S., Luepker, R. V., and Johnson, C. A. (1987b). The prevention of cigarette smoking in children: Two- and three-year follow-up comparisons of four prevention strategies.J. Behav. Med. 10(6): 595–611.

  17. Murray, D. M., Davis-Hearn, M., Goldman, A. I., Pirie, P., and Luepker, R. V. (1988). Four and five year follow-up results from four seventh-grade smoking prevention strateiges.J. Behav. Med. 11: 395–405.

  18. Pechacek, T. F., Murray, D. M., Luepker, R. V., Mittelmark, M. B., Johnson, C. A., and Shultz, J. (1984). Measurement of adolescent smoking behavior: Rationale and methods.J. Behav. Med. 7(1): 123–140.

  19. Pirie, P. L., Murray, D. M., and Luepker, R. V. (1988). Smoking prevalence in a cohort of adolescents, including absentees, dropouts, and transfers.Am. J. Pub. Health 78(2): 176–178.

  20. U.S. Department of Health Education and Welfare (1979).Smoking and Health, A Report of the Surgeon General, DHEW Publication No. (PHS) 79-50066, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

  21. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (1987).Smoking and Health, A National Status Report, A Report to Congress, DHHS Publication No. (CDC) 87-8396, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to David M. Murray.

Additional information

This work was supported by grants from the National Institute for Child Health and Human Development (R01 HD12801 and N01 HD92831), National Institute on Drug Abuse (R01 DA/HD03205), and National Cancer Institute (R01 CA38275).

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Murray, D.M., Pirie, P., Luepker, R.V. et al. Five- and six-year follow-up results from four seventh-grade smoking prevention strategies. J Behav Med 12, 207–218 (1989). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00846551

Download citation

Key words

  • adolescent
  • smoking
  • prevention
  • follow-up