Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Resting heart rate (HR) in women with and without premenstrual symptoms (PMS)

Abstract

A sample of 64 undergraduate female students participated in the present experiment. During 3 consecutive months women answered a chart of daily report of symptoms, and finally, two groups were formed: women with premenstrual symptoms (PMS group) and women without premenstrual symptoms (NPMS group). Heart rates (HR) at rest were recorded throughout premenstrual, menstrual, postmenstrual, and ovulatory phases. In the premenstrual phase, PMS group showed significantly higher resting HR levels than NPMS group. With regard to resting HR levels across the four phases studied, significant differences within PMS group were observed. Our results are discussed from a psychophysiological point of view.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Andersch, B. (1982). The effect of various oral contraceptive combinations on premenstrual symptoms.Int. J. Gynaecol. Obstet. 20: 463–469.

  2. Asso, D. (1983).The Real Menstrual Cycle, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester.

  3. Asso, D. (1986). The relationship between menstrual cycle changes in nervous system activity and psychological, behavioural and physical variables.Biol. Psychol. 23: 53–64.

  4. Aubuchon, P. G., and Calhoun, K. S. (1985). Menstrual cycle symptomatology: The role of social expectancy and experimental demand characteristics.Psychosom. Med. 47: 35–45.

  5. Backstrom, T., and Carstensen, H. (1974). Estrogen and progesterone in plasma in relation to premenstrual tension.J. Steroid Biochem. 5: 257–260.

  6. Backstrom, T., Boyle, H., and Baird, D. T. (1981). Persistence of symptoms of premenstrual tension in hysterectomized women.Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 88: 530.

  7. Backstrom, T., Baird, D. T., Bancroft, J., Bixo, M., Hanmarback, S., Sanders, D., Smith, S., and Zetterlund, B. (1983). Endocrinological aspects of cyclical mood changes during the menstrual cycle or the premenstrual syndrome.J. Psychosom. Obstet. Gynaecol. 2: 8–20.

  8. Beattie, C. W., Rodgers, C. H., and Soyka, L. F. (1973). Influence of ovariectomy and ovarian steroids on hypothalamic tyrosine hydroxylase in the rat.Endocrinology 91: 276–286.

  9. Becker, D., Creutzfeldt, O. D., Schwibbe, M., and Wuttke, W. (1982). Changes in physiological parameters in women during the spontaneous menstrual cycle and following oral contraceptives.Psychoneuroendocrinology 7: 75–90.

  10. Briggs, M., and Briggs, M. (1972). Relationship between monoamine oxidase activity and sex hormone concentrations in human blood plasma.J. Reprod. Fertil. 29: 447–450.

  11. Brown, T. G., Szabo, A., and Seraganian, P. (1988). Physical versus psychological determinants of heart rate reactivity to mental arithmetic.Psychophysiology 25: 532–537.

  12. Coles, M. G. H. (1986). Situational determinants and psychological significance of heart rate change. In Gale, A., and Edwards, J. A. (eds.),Physiological Correlates of Human Behaviour, Vol. 2. Attention and Performance, Academic Press, London, pp. 171–185.

  13. Collins, A., Eneroth, P., and Landgren, B. M. (1985). Psychoneuroendocrine stress responses and mood as related to the menstrual cycle.Psychosom. Med. 47: 512–527.

  14. Cullberg, J. (1972). Mood changes and menstrual symptoms with different gestation/estrogen combinations.Acta Psychiat. Scand. 236 (Suppl.): 1–84.

  15. Dalton, K. (1984).Premenstrual Syndrome and Progesterone Therapy, William Heinemann, London.

  16. Farha, J. G., and Sher, K. J. (1989). The effects of consent procedures on the psychophysiological assessment of anxiety: Methodological inquiry.Psychophysiology 26: 185–191.

  17. Greengrass, P. M., and Tonge, S. R. (1974). The accumulation of noradrenaline and 5-hydroxytriptamine in three regions of mouse brain after tetrabenazine and iproniazid: Effects of ethinyloestradiol and progesterone.Psychopharmacologia 39: 187–191.

  18. Hassett, J. (1978).A Primer of Psychophysiology, W. H. Freeman, New York.

  19. Inaba, M., and Kamata, K. (1979). Effect of estradiol-17 beta and other steroids on noradrenaline and dopamine binding to synaptic membrane fragments of rat brain.J. Steroid. Biochem. 11: 1491–1497.

  20. Janowsky, D. S., and Daris, J. M. (1970). Progesterone-estrogen effects on uptake and release of norepinephrine by synaptosomes.Life Sci. 9: 525–531.

  21. Kendall, D. A., and Narayana, K. (1978). Effects of oestradiol-17 beta on monoamine concentrations in the hypothalamus of anoestrous ewe.J. Physiol. 282: 44–45.

  22. Kessel, N., and Coppen, A. (1963). The prevalence of common menstrual symptoms.Lancet 13: 61–64.

  23. Klaiber, E. L., Kobayashi, Y., Broverman, D. M., and Hall, F. (1971). Plasma monoamine oxydase activity in regularly menstruating women and in amenorrheic women receiving cyclic treatment with estrogens and a progestin.J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 33: 630–638.

  24. Klaiber, E. L., Broverman, D. M., Vogel, W., Kobayashi, Y., and Moriarty, D. (1972). Effects of estrogen therapy on plasma MAO activity and EEG driving responses of depressed women.Am. J. Psychiat. 128: 1492–1498.

  25. Laughlin, M., and Johnson, R. E. (1984). Premenstrual syndrome.AFP 29: 265–269.

  26. Little, B., and Zahn, T. P. (1974). Changes in mood and autonomic functioning during the menstrual cycle.Psychophysiology 11: 579–590.

  27. Luggin, R., Bernsted, L., Petersson, B., and Jacobsen, A. T. (1984). Acute psychiatric admission related to the menstrual cycle.Acta Psychiat. Scand. 69: 461–465.

  28. Lyon, K. E., and Lyon, M. A. (1984). The premenstrual syndrome. A survey of current treatment practices.J. Reprod. Med. 29: 705–711.

  29. Magos, A. L., Brincat, M., and Studd, W. W. (1986). Trend analysis of the symptoms of 150 women with a history of the premenstrual syndrome.Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 155: 277–282.

  30. McKinnon, I. L. (1974). Observations on the pulse rate during the human menstrual cycle.J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 11: 578–590.

  31. Metcalf, M. G., and Hudson, S. M. (1985). The premenstrual syndrome: Selection of women for treatment trials.J. Psychosom. Res. 29: 631–638.

  32. Moos, R. H. (1968). The development of a Menstrual Distress Questionnaire.Psychosom. Med. XXX(6): 853–856.

  33. Moos, R. H. (1985).Perimenstrual Symptoms: A Manual and Overview of Research with the Menstrual Distress Questionnaire, Social Laboratory, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA.

  34. Morris, N. M., and Udry, J. R. (1972). Contraceptive pills and the day-to-day feelings of well being.Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 113: 763–765.

  35. Muranaka, M., Lane, J. D., Suarez, E. C., Anderson, N. B., Suzuki, J., and Williams, R. B. (1988). Stimulus-specific patterns of cardiovascular reactivity in type A and B subjects: Evidence for enhanced vagal reactivity in type B.Psychophysiology 25: 330–338.

  36. Murphy, J. K., Alpert, B. S., Willey, E. S., and Somes, G. W. (1988). Cardiovascular reactivity to psychological stress in healthy children.Psychophysiology 25: 144–152.

  37. O'Brien, P. M. S. (1982). The premenstrual syndrome: A review of the present status of therapy.Drugs 24: 140–151.

  38. Palmero, F. (1987).Introducción al Síndrome Premenstrual: Enfoque Psicofisiológico, Promolibro, Valencia.

  39. Palmero, F. (1991). Tasa cardiaca, tabaco y sindrome premenstrual.Arch. Psicofisiol. Méx. (in press).

  40. Palmero, F., and Garcia-Leon, A. (1989). Patrón-A de conducta y enfermedad coronaria: Relevancia de los aspectos psicobiológicos.Anal. Modific. Conduct. 15: 123–151.

  41. Palmero, F., and Humanes, J. F. (1988). Tasa cardiaca y fase perimenstrual. In Santacreu, J. (comp.).Modificación de Conducta y Psicología de la Salud, Promolibro, Valencia, pp. 439–449.

  42. Palmero, F., and Simon, V. (1985). Agresividad en el ciclo menstrual. Ponencia presentada alSimposio International de Genética y Conducta, Valencia.

  43. Plante, T. G., and Denney, D. R. (1984). Stress responsibility among dysmenorrheic women at different phases of their menstrual cycle. More ado about nothing.Behav. Res. Ther. 22: 249–258.

  44. Porges, S. W., Ackles, P. A., and Truax, S. R. (1983). Psychophysiological measurement: Methodological constraints. In Gale, A., and Edwards, J. A. (eds.),Physiological Correlates of Human Behaviour, Vol. 1. Basic Issues, Academic Press, London, pp. 219–240.

  45. Richards, J. E. (1988). Heart rate offset responses to visual stimuli in infants from 14 to 26 weeks of age.Psychophysiology 25: 278–291.

  46. Rubinow, D. R., and Roy-Byrne, P. (1984). Premenstrual syndromes: Overview for a methodologic perspective.Am. J. Psychiat. 141: 163–172.

  47. Rubinow, D. R., Roy-Byrne, P., Hoban, M. Ch., Gold, P. W., and Post, R. M. (1984). Prospective assessment of menstrually related mood disorders.Am. J. Psychiat. 141: 684–686.

  48. Rubinow, D. R., Roy-Byrne, P., Hoban, M. Ch., Grover, G. N., Stambler, N., and Post, R. M. (1986). Premenstrual mood changes. Characteristic patterns in women with and without premenstrual syndrome.J. Affect. Dis. 10: 85–90.

  49. Ruble, D. N. (1977). Premenstrual symptoms: A reinterpretation.Science 197: 291–292.

  50. Saab, P. G., Matthews, K. A., Stoney, C. M., and McDonald, R. H. (1989). Premenopausal and postmenopausal women differ in their cardiovascular and neuroendocrine responses to behavioral Stressors.Psychophysiology 26: 270–280.

  51. Simon, V., Palmero, F., and Redolat, R. (1984). Ciclo menstrual y cambios comportamentales. Ponencia presentada al Congreso Internacional de Psiquiatría Biológica, Barcelona.

  52. Sommer, B. (1978). Stress and menstrual distress.J. Hum. Stress. Sept.: 5–46.

  53. Srivastava, K., Dasgupta, P. K., and Mehrotra, P. K. (1978). Monoamine oxidase activity in the pituitary of mice after estrogen, progesterone and centchroman treatment.Ind. J. Physiol. Pharm. 22: 310.

  54. Stoney, C. M., Matthews, K. A., McDonald, R. H., and Johnson, C. A. (1988). Sex differences in lipid, lipoprotein, cardiovascular, and neuroendocrine responses to acute stress.Psychophysiology 25: 645–656.

  55. Sutherland, H., and Stuart, I. (1965). A critical analysis of the premenstrual syndrome.Lancet 5: 1180–1183.

  56. Timonen, S., and Procope, B. (1971). Premenstrual syndrome and physical exercise.Acta Obstet. Gynecol. Scand. 50: 331–337.

  57. Van den Akker, O., and Steptoe, A. (1987). Psychophysiological responses in women with premenstrual and menstrual symptoms.J. Psychophysiol. 1: 149–158.

  58. Varma, T. R. (1984). Hormones and electrolytes in premenstrual syndrome.Int. J. Gynaecol. Obstet. 22: 51–58.

  59. Vila, J. (1978). Vulnerabilidad a la adquisición de síntomas neuróticos.Anál. Modific. Conduct. 4: 57–58.

  60. Ward, M. M., Chesney, M. A., Swan, G. E., Black, G. W., Parker, S. D., and Rosenman, R. H. (1986). Cardiovascular responses in type A and type B men to a series of stressors.J. Behav. Med. 9: 43–49.

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Francisco Palmero.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Palmero, F., Choliz, M. Resting heart rate (HR) in women with and without premenstrual symptoms (PMS). J Behav Med 14, 125–139 (1991). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00846175

Download citation

Key words

  • heart rate
  • premenstrual symptoms
  • menstrual cycle