Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Environmental monitoring and the development of health standards

Abstract

The relationship of environmental monitoring to health protection control measures is described and the monitoring programs divided into those that measure targets and those that measure factors. The models are illustrated by descriptions of Canadian programs on the monitoring of chemicals in the media-food, drinking water, and air-and the factor monitoring of a physical agent, radiation. With lead it has proved possible to combine all the monitoring data from the principal sources of human exposure and derive the received dose. Finally, the manner in which some risk acceptability decisions are developed from risk estimations of chemical and radiation is described.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. [1]

    United Nations Environment Programme: 1974, Governing Counci/24.

  2. [2]

    HoldgateM. W.: 1979,A Perspective of Environmental Pollution, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

  3. [3]

    BeharJ. V., SchuckE. A., StanleyR. E., and MorganG. B.: 1979,Environ. Sci. Technol. 13, 34.

  4. [4]

    UNEP/WHO Report of the Meeting of a Government Expert Group on Health-Related Monitoring, Geneva 1977, CEP/77.6, Geneva.

  5. [5]

    Performance Measurement: 1978, Report to the House of Commons by the President of the Treasury Board, pp. 36, Treasury Board, Cat. No. BT35-4/1977, Canada.

  6. [6]

    Coffin, D. E. and McKinley, W. P.: 1979,Proc. 6th Intern. Congress Food Science and Technology, Kyoto 1978 (in press).

  7. [7]

    World Health Organization: 1979, Environmental Health Criteria 9,DDT and its Derivatives pp. 43, WHO, Geneva.

  8. [8]

    MahaffeyK. R., CorneliussenP. E., JelinekC. F., and FiorinoJ. A.: 1975,Environ. Health Perspectives 12, 63.

  9. [9]

    JohnsonR. D. and ManskeD. D.: 1977,Pest. Monit. J. 11, 116.

  10. [10]

    MérangerJ. C. and SmithD. C.: 1972,Can. J. Public Health 63, 53.

  11. [11]

    KirkpatrickD. C. and CoffinD. E.: 1974,Can. Inst. Food Sci. Technol. J. 7, 56.

  12. [12.]

    KirkpatrickD. C. and CoffinD. E.: 1977,Can. J. Public Health 68, 162.

  13. [13]

    Méranger, J. C., Conacher, H. B. S., Cunningham, H. M., and Krewski, D.: 1980,Can. J. Public Health.

  14. [14]

    Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives: 1972,Evaluation of Certain Food Additives and the Contaminants, Mercury, Lead and Cadmium, Tech. Rep. Ser. 505, WHO, Geneva.

  15. [15]

    Department of National Health and Welfare, Ottawa: 1979,Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality 1978.

  16. [16]

    MérangerJ. C., SubramanianK. S., and ChalifouxC.: 1979,Environ. Sci. Technol. 13, 707.

  17. [17]

    Méranger, J. C.: 1980,The Interaction between Suspended Particles and Trace Elements in Drinking Water Supplies, M. Sc. Thesis, Carleton Univ., Ottawa.

  18. [18]

    NestmannE. R., LeBelG. L., WilliamsD. T., and KowbelD. J.: 1979,Environ. Mutagenesis 1, 337.

  19. [19]

    Department of National Health and Welfare, Ottawa: 1979,National Survey for Halomethanes in Drinking Water, 77-EHD-9.

  20. [20]

    MalaiyandiM., WilliamsD. T., and O'GradyR.: 1979,Environ. Sci. Technol. 13, 59.

  21. [21]

    SomersE.: 1979,Can. J. Public Health 70, 388.

  22. [22]

    Department of National Health and Welfare, Ottawa: 1978,Fluoridation in Canada as of December 31, 1976. 78-EHD-19.

  23. [23]

    Department of National Health and Welfare, Ottawa: 1977,Fluoridation and Cancer, 77-EHD-18.

  24. [24]

    Department of National Health and Welfare, Ottawa: 1979,National Survey for Asbestos Fibres in Canadian Drinking Water Supplies, 79-EHD-34.

  25. [25]

    Air Pollution Control Directorate, Environment Canada, Ottawa: 1975,Canada's Air Pollution Control Program, Report EPS 2-AP-75-1.

  26. [26]

    Air Pollution Control Directorate, Environment Canada, Ottawa: 1979,National Air Quality Trends, 1970–77, Report EPS 5-AP-78-27.

  27. [27]

    WHO, Geneva: 1977,Lead, Environmental Health Criteria 3.

  28. [28]

    U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.: 1977,Air Quality Criteria for Lead, Report EPA-600/8-77-017.

  29. [29]

    Department of National Health and Welfare, Ottawa: 1979,Environmental Radioactivity in Canada 1973–76, 79-EHD-37.

  30. [30]

    Vasudev, P., Meyerhof, D. P., Taniguchi, H., and Prantl, F. A.: 1977,Environmental Radioactivity near Canadian Nuclear Reactor Sites, presented at annual conference of the Canadian Nuclear Association, Montreal, (June 1977).

  31. [31]

    McGregorR. G., VasudevP., LétourneauE. G., McCulloughR. S., PrantlF. A., and TaniguchiH.: 1980,Health Physics 39, 285.

  32. [32]

    Létourneau, E. G., McGregor, R. G. and Taniguchi, H.: 1978,Surveillance de Radon Monitoring, NEA Meeting, Nov. 1978, 167, OECD, Paris.

  33. [33]

    KatesR. W.: 1978,Risk Assessment of Environmental Hazard, SCOPE 8, John Wiley, Chichester.

  34. [34]

    National Academy of Sciences and National Research Council: 1972, 1977,The effects on populations of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation, BEIR Reports, Washington.

  35. [35]

    Hamilton, L. D.: 1979,Health effects of electricity generation, Conference Health Effects of Energy Production, Chalk River, (Sept. 1979).

  36. [36]

    WhyteA. V. and BurtonI.: 1980,Environmental Risk Assessment, SCOPE 15, John Wiley, Chichester.

  37. [37]

    PochinE. E.: 1975,Br. Med. Bull. 31, 184.

  38. [38]

    Wilson, R.: 1978, Testimony for OSHA Hearings, Washington (February 1978).

  39. [39]

    PochinE. E.: 1978, Why be Quantitative about Radiation Risk Estimates?’, Lecture No. 2, the Lauriston S. Taylor Lecture Series in Radiation Protection and Measurements, National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, Washington, D.C.

  40. [40]

    CohenB. L. and I-SingLee: 1979,Health Physics 36, 707–722.

  41. [41]

    AMA Council on Scientific Affairs: 1979,JAMA 240, 2193.

  42. [42]

    Canad. Occup.Health Safety News 4 (September 3, 1979).

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Somers, E. Environmental monitoring and the development of health standards. Environ Monit Assess 1, 7–19 (1981). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00836872

Download citation

Keywords

  • Radiation
  • Drinking Water
  • Environmental Management
  • Control Measure
  • Risk Estimation