Individual vortices in superconductors are directly observed with our holography electron microscope. Vortices cannot be viewed as an electron micrograph, but only as a holographic interference micrograph or a defocused micrograph (Lorentz micrograph), since vortices are phase objects to the illumination electron beam. Since the flux itself, and not its replica, is detected, even the dynamic behavior can be observed. The dynamics of vortices in a Nb thin film can be observed in real time when the sample conditions, such as the temperature or the applied magnetic field, change.
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Tonomura, A. Dynamic observation of vortices in superconductors using a holography electron microscope. J Supercond 7, 265–267 (1994). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00724549
- electron holography
- interference microscopy
- Lorentz microscopy