The reconcilability of gravitational with electromagnetic clocks suggests that a rigorous analysis of time will provide understanding of the unity of gravity and electromagnetism. Time is found to be fundamentally a property of elementary particles, only derivatively a property of clocks. A declaration is made: that the flow of an elementary particle's timeis the change of its radius, that time is therefore illusory. The de Sitter expanding universe is derived from this principle by treating elementary particles as spheres in Euclidean space. The hyperspheres of de Sitter space call up a five-dimensional metric manifold whose geometry models gravity, electromagnetism, and other phenomena tied to the structure of matter; neutrinos are provided for. Distance in this manifold is related to a secondary time, not correlated to primary time, but just as illusory. A particle's inertial rest mass is the relative rate of its two proper times; mass and charge are jointly, not individually, conserved.
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Ellis, H.G. Time, the grand illusion. Found Phys 4, 311–319 (1974). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00712694
- Elementary Particle
- Euclidean Space
- Relative Rate