Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

How HMOs can effectively manage mental health services in the 1990S

  • 18 Accesses

  • 6 Citations


The performance of managed mental health programs has helped employers overcome their reluctance to provide coverage for services that were considered difficult to control. The emergence of the carve out as an alternative to existing behavioral health programs, including those offered by HMOs, had led to increased expectations for higher levels of performance. This paper argues that HMOs, by strengthening their commitment to integrated care, can meet the challenge.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Adler, S. (1990). Mental health benefits revised.Business Insurance, 27–28.

  2. Altman, L., & Goldstein, J.M. (1988). Impact of HMO model types on mental health service delivery: Variations in treatment and approaches.Administration in Mental Health, 15, 246–261.

  3. Austad, C.S., & Berman, W.H. (1991). Managed health care and the evolution of psychotherapy. In C.S. Austad, & W.H. Berman (Eds.),Psychotherapy in managed health care: The optimal use of time and resources. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.

  4. Bell, N.N. (1991). Packaging a better brand of mental health.Business & Health, 9, 75–78.

  5. Borus, J.F. (1985). Psychiatry and other specialities: Psychiatry and the primary care physician. In H.I. Kaplan & B.J. Sadock (Eds.),Comprehensive textbook of psychiatry/IV. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.

  6. Costello, E.J. (1989). Child psychiatric disorders and their correlates: A primary care pediatric sample.Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 28, 851–855.

  7. Christianson, J., Peterson, S.M., & Wholey, D. (1992).National survey of mental health, alcohol, and drug abuse treatment in HMOs: 1989 Chartbook. Minneapolis, MN: Interstudy Center for Managed Care Research.

  8. DeLeon, P.H., & VandenBos, G.R. (1991). Psychotherapy in managed health care: Integrating federal policy with clinical practice. In C.S. Austad & W.H. Berman (Eds.),Psychotherapy in managed health care: The optional use of time and resources. Washington, DC: APA.

  9. Dodyk, H. (June, 1988). Contracting for psychiatric services.Proceedings for the Group Health Institute, 253–260.

  10. Donabedian, A. (1976).Benefits in medical care programs. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

  11. Employee Benefit Plan Review (1990)44, 18–20.

  12. Feldman, S. (1986). Mental health in health maintenance organizations: A report.Administration in Mental Health, 13, 165–179.

  13. Freeman, M.A. (April 1993). High-quality behavioral health benefit programs are possible, but problems must be fixed first.Managed Healthcare News, p. 43.

  14. Goldman, W. (1988). Mental health and substance abuse in HMOs. Unpublished paper.

  15. Kunnes, R., & Lambert, B. (May 1992). Benefit design offers more for less.Personnel Journal.

  16. Lubotsky, B.L., Glasser, J.H., Jaffee, & Cabot, L. (1988). Public health briefs: National trends in coverage and utilization of mental health, alcohol, and substance abuse services within managed health care systems.American Journal of Health, 78, 1222–1223.

  17. Manning, W.G., Wells, K.B., & Benjamin, G. (1987). Use of outpatient mental health services overtime in a health maintenance organization and fee-for-service plans.American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 283–287.

  18. Norquist, G.S., & Wells, K.B. (1991) How do HMOs reduce outpatient mental health care costs?American Journal of Psychiatry, 148:96–101.

  19. Oss, M.E. (April 1992).Open Minds, 5.

  20. Spiro, A.H., Stokes, L.Q. (1991). A multifaceted approach to managed mental health care.Quality Assurance & Utilization Review, 6, 54–58.

  21. Ware, J.E., Brook, R.H., Rogers, W.H., Keeler, E.G., Davies, A.R., Sherbourne, C.D., Goldberg, G.A., Camp, P., & Newhouse, J.P. (1986). Health insurance: Comparison of health outcomes at a health maintenance organization with those of fee-for-service care.The Lancet, 1(8488):1017–1022.

  22. Winslow, R. (September 12, 1991). New study shows inpatient treatment maybe best course for problem drinkers.Wall Street Journal, pp. B1, B4.

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Wainstock, E.J. How HMOs can effectively manage mental health services in the 1990S. Adm Policy Ment Health 21, 15–26 (1993). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00706410

Download citation


  • Public Health
  • Mental Health
  • Health Service
  • Mental Health Service
  • Health Program