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Herkunftsversuche für Zwecke der Forstpflanzenzüchtung, erläutert am Beispiel zweier Modellversuche

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Zusammenfassung

Die älteren Herkunftsversuche hatten das Ziel, das genetische Variationsmuster der Baumarten zu beschreiben (wirtschaftliche Zielsetzung) und durch dessen Abhängigkeiten von der Umwelt die Wirksamkeit der natürlichen Auslese zu zeigen (genökologische Zielsetzung). Gelegentlich werden auch taxonomische Fragen mit bearbeitet. Als bester Plan für die Stichprobenentnahme von Material für solche Versuche kann Probenentnahme entlang von “transsects” angesehen werden. Eine Kombination von Labor-, Baumschul- und Feldversuchen ermöglicht Prüfung auch umfangreichen Versuchsmaterials, wie es bei hinreichend dichter Probenahme und großem Verbreitungsgebiet der Baumart notwendigerweise anfällt.

Von Herkunftsversuchen, die als Grundlage für Züchtungsprogramme dienen sollen, müssen auch Informationen über die genetische Variation und Kovariation innerhalb der Herkünfte gefordert werden. Bei geeigneter Versuchsanordnung können dann nicht nur Informationen über die Wirksamkeit der natürlichen Auslese überhaupt, sondern auch über das Zusammenspiel von Umweltvariation und genetischen Prozessen in den Populationen gewonnen werden. Art und Ausmaß der genetischen Variation und Kovariation in den Herkünften, Feststellung von Art, Richtung und Intensität der natürlichen Auslese, Bedeutung von Zufälligkeiten für die Differenzierung von Herkünften sowie der Grad der Koadaptation beim Vergleich entfernterer Herkünfte stellen die Populationsparameter dar, an denen der Forstpflanzenzüchter interessiert ist, wenn er die Erfolgsaussicht bestimmter Phasen eines Züchtungsprogramms einschätzen will.

Zur Erläuterung wurden Ergebnisse zweier Herkunftsversuche mit Birken verwendet. Es wird darauf hingewiesen, daß es notwendig ist, Modelle und Verfahren zu entwickeln, die für die Verhältnisse in den Waldbaumpopulationen passen und den Schwierigkeiten beim Experimentieren mit Bäumen Rechnung tragen.

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Stern, K. Herkunftsversuche für Zwecke der Forstpflanzenzüchtung, erläutert am Beispiel zweier Modellversuche. Der Züchter 34, 181–219 (1964). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00705895

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