Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Boundary-layer flow structures associated with particle reentrainment

Abstract

Measurements of near-surface longitudinal and vertical wind velocity components associated with particle reentrainment from a flat surface have been examined in a wind tunnel. Sparsely covered particle beds were used to assure that observed reentrainment events resulted primarily from the action of fluid forces. Characteristic velocity patterns were found to be associated with a majority of particle reentrainment events examined. These characteristics have been categorized and examined as ensemble averages. The flow pattern most frequently observed during particle reentrainment was termed Ejection-Sweep (E-S) and is very similar to organized fluid motions previously observed in laboratory flows and in the atmospheric boundary layer. A simple two-tiered E-S pattern recognition scheme is described which strives to identify particle reentrainment events objectively based on flow characteristics alone. The first step is to identify potential E-S patterns using criteria which identify a characteristic longitudinal acceleration, and the second step is to use threshold values of pattern characteristics to accept or reject these first-tier patterns. Pattern recognition results are presented in terms of the ability to identify reentrainment events versus false identifications, and show an exponential growth in false identifications with an increasing number of reentrainment events identified.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Antonia, R. A. and Bisset, D. K.: 1990, ‘Spanwise Structure in the Near-Wall Region of a Turbulent Boundary Layer’,J. Fluid Mech. 210, 437–458.

  2. Antonia, R. A., Bisset, D. K., and Browne, L. W. B.: 1990, ‘Effect of Reynolds Number on the Topology of the Organized Motion in a Turbulent Boundary Layer’.J. Fluid Mech. 213, 267–286.

  3. Bagnold, R. A.: 1941,The Physics of Blown Sand and Desert Dunes, Methuen, London, 265 pp.

  4. Blackwelder, R. F. and Kaplan, R. E.: 1976, ‘On the Wall Structure of the Turbulent Boundary Layer’,J. Fluid Mech. 76, 89–112.

  5. Blackwelder, R. F. and Haritonidis, J. H.: 1983, ‘Scaling of the Bursting Frequency in Turbulent Boundary Layers’,J. Fluid Mech. 132, 87–103.

  6. Braaten, D. A., Shaw, R. H., and Paw U. K. T.: 1986, ‘Particle Detachment in Turbulent Boundary Layers’,Aerosols: Formation and Reactivity, Pergamon Press. Oxford, pp. 370–373.

  7. Braaten, D. A., Paw, U. K. T. and Shaw, R. H.: 1988, ‘Coherent Turbulent Structures and Particle Detachment in Boundary Flows’,J. Aerosol. Sci. 19, 1183–1186.

  8. Braaten, D. A., Paw, U, K. T. and Shaw, R. H.: 1988, ‘Particle Resuspension in a Turbulent Boundary Layer—Observed and Modeled’,J. Aerosol Sci. 21, 613–628.

  9. Chepil, W. S.: 1945, ‘Dynamics of Wind Erosion: I. Nature of Movement of Soil by Wind’,Soil Sci. 60, 305–320.

  10. Cleaver, J. W. and Yates, B.: 1973, ‘Mechanism of Detachment of Colloidal Particles from a Flat Substrate in Turbulent Flow’,J. Colloid Interface Sci. 44, 464–474.

  11. Cooper, D. W.: 1986, ‘Particle Contamination and Microelectronics Manufacturing: an Introduction’,Aerosol Sci. Technol. 5, 287–299.

  12. Corino, E. R., and Brodkey, R. S.: 1969, ‘A Visual Investigation of the Wall Region in Turbulent Flow’,J. Fluid Mech. 37, 1.

  13. Corn, M.: 1966, ‘Adhesion of Particles’, C. N. Davies (eds),Aerosol Science, Academic Press, New York, pp. 359–392.

  14. Fairchild, C. I. and Tillery, M. I.: 1982, ‘Wind Tunnel Measurements of the Resuspension of Ideal Particles,Atmos. Env. 16, 229–238.

  15. Fletcher, B.: 1976a, ‘The Erosion of Dust by an Airflow’,J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 9, 913–924.

  16. Fletcher, B.: 1976b, ‘The Incipient Motion of Granular Materials’,J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 9, 2471–2478.

  17. Fukunishi, Y. and Sato, H.: 1987, ‘Formation of Intermittent Region by Coherent Motions in the Turbulent Boundary Layer’,Fluid Dynamics Res. 2, 113–124.

  18. Gao, W., Shaw, R. H. and Paw U, K. T.: 1989, ‘Observation of Organized Structure in Turbulent Flow Within and Above a Forest Canopy’,Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 47, 349–377.

  19. Garland, J. A.: 1983, ‘Some Recent Studies of the Resuspension of Deposited Material from Soil and Grass’, in H. R. Pruppacher, R. G. Semonin, and W. G. N. Slinn (eds.),Precipitation Scavenging, Dry Deposition and Resuspension, Vol. 2, Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 1087–1097.

  20. Garland, J. A. and Playford, K.: 1992, ‘Resuspension, Following the Chernobyl Accident’, in S. E. Schwartz and W. G. N. Slinn (eds.),Precipitation Scavenging and Atmosphere-Surface Exchange, Vol. 3, Hemisphere, Washington, pp. 1605–1614.

  21. Gillette, D. A.: 1978, ‘A Wind Tunnel Simulation of the Erosion of Soil: Effect of Soil Texture, Sandblasting, Wind Speed and Soil Consolidation on Dust Production’,Atmos. Env. 12, 1735–1743.

  22. Gillette, D. A., Adams, J., Endo, A., Smith, D. and Kihl, R.: 1980, ‘Threshold Velocities for Input of Soil Particles in the Air by Desert Soils’,J. Geophys. Res. 85, 5621–5630.

  23. Gillette, D. A., Adams, J., Muhs, D. and Kihl, R.: 1982, ‘Threshold Friction Velocities and Rupture Module for Crusted Desert Soils for the Input of Soil Particles into the Air’,J. Geophys. Res. 87(c11), 9003–9015.

  24. Goren, S. L.: 1970, ‘The Normal Force Exerted by Creeping Flow on a Small Sphere Touching a Plane’,J. Fluid Mech. 41, 619–625.

  25. Grass, A. J.: 1971, ‘Structural Features of Turbulent Flow over Smooth and Rough Boundaries’,J. Fluid Mech. 50, 233–255.

  26. Grass, A. J.: 1983, ‘The Influence of Boundary Layer Turbulence on the mechanics of Sediment Transport.’, B. M. Sumer and A. Müller (eds.),Euromech 156: Mechanics of Sediment Transport, Istanbul, pp. 3–17.

  27. Gyr, A.: 1983, ‘Towards a Better Definition of the Three Types of Sediment Transport’,J. Hydraulic Res. 21, 1–15.

  28. Hall, D. and Reed, J.: 1989, ‘The Time Dependence of the Resuspension of Particles’,J. Aerosol Sci. 20, 839–842.

  29. Hinds, W. C.: 1982,Aerosol Technology, Wiley & Sons, New York, 424 pp.

  30. Ikeda, S. and Asaeda, T.: 1983, ‘Sediment Suspension with Rippled Bed’,J. Hydrol. Eng. 109, 409–423.

  31. Johnson, F. D. and Eckelmann, H.: 1984, ‘A Variable Angle Method of Calibration for X-Probes Applied to Wall-Bounded Turbulent Shear Flow’,Exp. Fluids 2, 121–130.

  32. Kline, S. J., Reynolds, W. C., Schraub, F. A. and Runstadler, P. W.: 1967, ‘The Structure of Turbulent Boundary Layers’,J. Fluid Mech. 30, 741.

  33. Kobashi, Y. and Ichijo, M.: 1986, ‘Wall Pressure and its Relation to Turbulent Structure of a Boundary Layer’,Exp. Fluids 4, 49–55.

  34. Liu, B. Y. H. and Kang-ho A.: 1987, ‘Particle Deposition on Semiconductor Wafers’,Aerosol Sci. Technol. 6, 215–224.

  35. Nicholson, K. W. and Branson, J. R.: 1992, ‘Atmosphere-Surface Exchange of Particulates in Built up Areas’, in S. E. Schwartz and W. G. N. Slinn (eds.),Precipitation Scavenging and Atmosphere-Surface Exchange, Vol. 2, Hemisphere, Washington, pp. 673–682.

  36. Nicholson, K. W.: 1988, ‘A Review of Particle, Resuspension’,Atmos. Environ. 22, 2639–2651.

  37. O'Neill, M. E.: 1968, ‘A Sphere in Contact with a Plane Wall in a Slow Linear Shear Flow’,Chem. Eng. Sci. 23, 1293–1298.

  38. Punjrath, J. S. and Heldman, D. R.: 1972, ‘Mechanisms of Small Particle Reentrainment from Flat Surfaces’,J. Aerosol Sci. 3, 429–440.

  39. Reeks, M. W., Reed, J., and Hall, D.: 1988 ‘On the Resuspension of Small Particles by a Turbulent Flow‘,J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 21, 574–589.

  40. Sehmel, G. A.: 1980, ‘Particle Resuspension: a Review’,Environ. Int. 4, 107–127.

  41. Sumer, B. M. and Deigaard, R.: 1981, ‘Particle Motions Near the Bottom in Turbulent Flow in an Open Channel’,J. Fluid Mech. 109, 311–337.

  42. Ungar, J. E. and Haff, P. K.: 1987, ‘Steady State Saltation in Air’,Sedimentology 34, 289–299.

  43. Wallace, J. M., Brodkey, R. S. and Eckelmann, H.: 1977, ‘Pattern-Recognized Structures in Bounded Turbulent Shear Flows’,J. Fluid Mech. 83, 673–693.

  44. Wen, H. Y. and Kasper, G.: 1989, ‘On the Kinetics of Particle Reentrainment from Surfaces’,J. Aerosol Sci. 20, 483–498.

  45. Werner, B. T. and Haff, P. K.: 1988, ‘The Impact Process in Eolian Saltation: Two Dimensional Simulations’,Sedimentology 35, 189–196.

  46. Willetts, B. B. and Rice, M. A.: 1988, ‘Particle Dislodgement from a Flat Sand Bed by Wind’,Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 13, 717–728.

  47. Willetts, B. B. and Rice, M. A.: 1989, ‘Collisions of Quartz Grains with a Sand Bed: Influence of Incidence Angle’,Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 14, 719–730.

  48. Zimon, A. D.: 1980,Adhesion of Dust and Power, Consultants Bureau, New York, 438 pp.

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Braaten, D.A., Shaw, R.H. & Paw U, K.T. Boundary-layer flow structures associated with particle reentrainment. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 65, 255–272 (1993). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00705529

Download citation

Keywords

  • Wind Velocity
  • Wind Tunnel
  • Atmospheric Boundary Layer
  • Ensemble Average
  • Fluid Motion