Birch wood meal was phenolated in the presence of sulfuric acid used as a catalyst by changing several reaction conditions, such as, phenol-to-wood ratio, temperature, time, and catalyst concentration to make novolak-type resin. A phenol-to-wood ratio of 2–5, reaction temperature of 60–150 °C, time of 60–120 min, and acid concentration of 1–3% were found to be usable values for obtaining good enough amounts of combined phenol and less amounts of unreacted wood residue. The flow properties (flow temperature and apparent melt-viscosity) of the phenolated wood obtained increased with the increase in the amount of combined phenol, however, decreased with the increase in the moisture content and free phenol in the phenolated wood. Furthermore, it was found that the solubility of the phenolated wood in the organic solvents depended, greatly, on the hydrogen bonding strength of the solvents.
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Alma, M.H., Yoshioka, M., Yao, Y. et al. Preparation of sulfuric acid-catalyzed phenolated wood resin. Wood Sci.Technol. 32, 297–308 (1998). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00702897
- Hydrogen Bonding
- Sulfuric Acid
- Organic Solvent