We present a device which modifies the heat-pipe oven in such a way that the molecular number density can be drastically reduced. The device is essentially a small chamber with an independent internal heater inserted into the center of the ordinary linear heat-pipe oven which, in turn, serves as a reservoir of the liquid metal. The advantage of the present design of superheating within the heat-pipe oven, where temperature differences of several hundreds degrees centigrade were obtained, is shown in the case of far blue wings of the first self-broadened potassium resonance lines.
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Milošević, S., Beuc, R. & Pichler, G. Superheating in the heat-pipe oven. Appl. Phys. B 41, 135–138 (1986). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00702666