The effect of radial increment core diameter (comparing the effects of 12, 8 and 4 mm diameters, with sampling from chips used as a control) on the measurement of tracheid mean length and the percentage of broken tracheids was examined for mature wood of Norway spruce. Two methods of measuring tracheid length were used: image analysis, in which arithmetic mean length (AML) was calculated for unbroken tracheids, and the Kajaani FS-200, in which AML was calculated for all tracheids, regardless of damage. In addition to AML, length weighted mean length (LWML) was calculated for the Kajaani.
Almost 70 % of all tracheids remained undamaged when the 12 mm increment core was used. This was 18 % units less than for chips. Proportion of broken tracheids increased as core diameter decreased, and for the 4 mm increment core 30 per cent of all tracheids remained undamaged.
All increment core diameters tested gave LWML values that were significantly lower than the control. For AML by Kajaani, all mean values were about 50 percent lower than corresponding LWML or image analysis values, thus showing the direct influence of broken tracheids. However, only the 4 and 8 mm increment cores differed significantly from the control. For unbroken tracheids measured by image analysis, the 4 mm increment core gave a significantly lower value than the control, thus showing the indirect influence of broken tracheids. Values obtained from the 8 and 12 :mm increment cores did not differ significantly from the control.
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We thank Öjvind Sundvall, Gunilla Ericsson and Birgitta Lundgren, MoDo Research and Development, Örnsköldsvik, for technical assistance and Professors Erik G. Stahl, Dept. of Forest Yield Research, SLU Garpenberg, and Björn Elfving, Dept. of Silviculture, SLU Umeå, for their helpful comments on the manuscript. We are also grateful to Dr. Staffan Uvell, Dept. of Mathematical Statistics, Umeå University, for statistical advice. Language was revised by Proper English Ltd., Alfta. Funding was provided by MoDo Ltd. and SLU, Faculty of Forestry, Graduate School in Wood and Fiber Science.
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Bergqvist, G., Bergsten, U. & Ahlqvist, B. Effect of radial increment core diameter on tracheid length measurement in Norway spruce. Wood Sci.Technol. 31, 241–250 (1997). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00702612
- Image Analysis
- Direct Influence
- Length Measurement
- Core Diameter
- Indirect Influence