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The constraints on maximal activity in spiders

II. Limitations imposed by phosphagen depletion and anaerobic metabolism

Summary

  1. 1.

    Concentration changes of phosphagen (arginine phosphate) and adenine nucleotides (ATP, ADP, AMP) and Pi, some glycolytic and Krebs cycle intermediates,d-lactate, and carbohydrate substrates were measured in the prosomas and legs of two species of spider,Filistata hibernalis andLycosa lenta at rest and during two min of forced activity.

  2. 2.

    During the first 10 to 15 s of activity, nearly all phosphagen is depleted and adenylate energy charge drops from ca. 0.9 to a value of 0.6 to 0.7. For the remainder of the two min of activity, a steady state with respect to phosphagen and adenine nucleotides is maintained (Figs. 4–7).

  3. 3.

    Rates ofd-lactate accumulation appear to be constant or to increase after the first 10 s of activity (Fig. 3). In these spiders, the highest rates of lactate accumulation are not associated with the fastest running speeds.

  4. 4.

    The rapid decrease in movement that occurs over the first 10 to 20 s of activity in these and many other species of spiders may be largely related to the depletion of high-energy phosphate (∼ P): maximum rates of anaerobic and aerobic synthesis of ∼ P are several times lower than are the rates at which ∼ P is used from stores (Table 3). The large amounts of Pi released by depleting these stores would represent a potent buffer for H+ produced during lactate synthesis (Figs. 6 and 3).

  5. 5.

    Carbohydrate stores do not change significantly and do not appear to be the limiting factor for short (<2 min), maximum bursts of activity.

  6. 6.

    Spiders that lack extensive tracheal systems resemble other lunged animals physiologically and biochemically more than they resemble insects.

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Abbreviations

AP :

arginine phosphate

AK :

arginine kinase

DHAP :

dihydroxyacetone phosphate

FBP :

fructose bisphosphate

G3P :

glycerol-3-phosphate

G6P :

glucose-6-phosphate

Ga3P :

glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate

P i :

inorganic phosphate

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Prestwich, K.N. The constraints on maximal activity in spiders. J Comp Physiol B 158, 449–456 (1988). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00691142

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Keywords

  • Carbohydrate
  • Lactate
  • Arginine
  • Maximal Activity
  • Concentration Change