Springer Nature is making Coronavirus research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Fermentation of xylose and hemicellulose hydrolysates by an ethanol-adapted culture ofBacteroides polypragmatus

  • 63 Accesses

  • 8 Citations


Bacteroides polypragmatus type strain GP4 was adapted to grow in the presence of 3.5% (w/v) ethanol by successive transfers into 1% (w/v)d-xylose media supplemented with increasing concentrations of ethanol. The maximum specific growth rate of the ethanol-adapted culture (μ=0.30 h-1) was not affected by up to 2% (w/v) ethanol but that of the non-adapted strain declined by about 50%. The growth rate of both cultures was limited by nutrient(s) contained in yeast extract. The ethanol yield of the adapted culture (1.01 mol/mol xylose) was higher than that (0.80 mol/mol xylose) of the non-adapted strain. The adapted culture retained the ability to simultaneously ferment pentose and hexose sugars, and moreover it was not inhibited by xylose concentrations of 7–9% (w/v). This culture also readily fermented hemicellulose hydrolysates obtained by mild acid hydrolysis of either hydrogen fluoride treated or steam exploded Aspen wood. The ethanol yield from the fermentation of the hydrolysates was comparable to that obtained from xylose.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Baillargeon MW, Jansen NB, Gong CS, Tsao GT (1983) Effect of oxygen uptake rate on ethanol production by a xylosefermenting yeast mutant,Candida sp. XF 217. Biotechnol Lett 5:339–344

  2. Benjamin MM, Woods SL, Ferguson JF (1984) Anaerobic toxicity and biodegradability of pulp mill waste constituents. Water Res 18:601–607

  3. Breuil C, Patel GB (1981) Effect of pH and oxygen on growth and viability ofAcetivibrio cellulolyticus. J Gen Microbiol 125:41–46

  4. Detroy RW, Cunningham RL, Bothast RJ, Bagby MO, Herman A (1982) Bioconversion of wheat straw cellulose/hemicellulose to ethanol bySaccharomyces uvarum andPachysolen tannophilus. Biotechnol Bioeng 24:1105–1113

  5. Dunning JW, Lathrop EC (1945) The saccharification of agricultural residues: a continuous process. Ind Eng Chem 37:24–29

  6. Esser K, Karsch T (1984) Bacterial ethanol production: advantages and disadvantages. Proc Biochem 19:116–121

  7. Gong CS (1983) Recent advances ind-xylose conversion by yeasts. In: Tsao GT (ed) Annual reports on fermentation process, vol 6, Academic Press Inc. New York, pp 253–297

  8. Gong CS, Ladisch MR, Tsao GT (1981a) Production of ethanol from wood hemicellulose hydrolyzates by a xylose-fermenting yeast mutant,Candida sp. XF 217. Biotechnol Lett 3:657–662

  9. Gong CS, McCracken LD, Tsao GT (1981b) Direct fermentation ofd-xylose to ethanol by a xylose-fermenting yeast mutant,Candida sp. XF 217. Biotechnol Lett 3:245–250

  10. Gonzales-Valdes A, Moo-Young M (1981) Production of yeast SCP from corn stover hydrolysates. Biotechnol Lett 3:143–148

  11. Kilian SG, Prior BA, Lategan PM (1983) Diauxic utilization of glucose-cellobiose mixtures byCandida wickerhamii. Eur J Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 18:369–373

  12. MacKenzie CR, Patel GB (1986) Cellodextrin utilization and β-glucosidase production byBacteroides polypragmatus. Arch Microbiol 145:91–96

  13. Margaritis A, Bajpai P (1982) Direct fermentation ofd-xylose to ethanol byKluyveromyces marxianus strains. Appl Environ Microbiol 44:1039–1041

  14. Murray WD, Khan AW (1983a) Ethanol production by a newly isolated anaerobe,Clostridium saccharolyticum: effects of culture medium and growth conditions. Can J Microbiol 29:342–347

  15. Murray WD, Khan AW (1983b) Growth requirements ofClostridium saccharolyticum, an ethanologenic anaerobe. Can J Microbiol 29:348–353

  16. Patel GB (1983) Fermentation of lactose byBacteroides polypragmatus. Can J Microbiol 29:120–128

  17. Patel GB (1984) Ethanol production duringd-xylose,l-arabinose, andd-ribose fermentation byBacteroides polypragmatus. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 20:111–117

  18. Patel GB, Breuil C (1981) Isolation and characterization ofBacteroides polypragmatus sp. nov., an isolate that produces carbon dioxide, hydrogen and acetic acid during growth on various organic substrates. In: Moo-Young M, Robinson CW (eds) Advances in biotechnology, vol 2. Pergamon Press, Toronto, pp 291–296

  19. Rosenberg SL (1980) Fermentation of pentose sugars to ethanol and other neutral products by microorganisms. Enzyme Microb Technol 2:185–193

  20. Rosenberg SL, Batter TR, Blanch HW, Wilke CR (1981) Hemicellulose utilization for ethanol production. The Am Inst of Chemical Engineers Symp 77:107–114

  21. Saddler JN, Chan MK-H (1984) Conversion of pretreated lignocellulosic substrates to ethanol byClostridium thermocellum in mono- and co-culture withClostridium themosaccharolyticum andClostridium thermohydrosulphuricum. Can J Microbiol 30:212–220

  22. Sciamanna AF, Freitas RP, Wilke CR (1977) Composition and utilization of cellulose for chemicals from agricultural residues. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Report No. 5966, Berkeley, California, USA

  23. Slininger PJ, Bothast RJ, Van Cauwenberge JE, Kurtzman CP (1982) Conversion ofd-xylose to ethanol by the yeastPachysolen tannophilus. Biotechnol Bioeng 24:371–384

  24. Ueng PP, Gong CS (1982) Ethanol production from pentoses and sugar-cane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolysate byMucor andFusarium species. Enzyme Microb Technol 4:169–171

  25. Wang DIC, Biocic I, Fang H-Y, Wang S-D (1979) Direct microbiological conversion of cellulosic biomass to ethanol. Proc 3rd Annual Biomass Energy Systems Conf., Golden, Colorado. National Technical Information Service, U.S. Dept. of Commerce, pp 61–67

  26. Watson NE, Prior BA, du Preez JC, Lategan PM (1984a) Oxygen requirements ford-xylose fermentation to ethanol and polyols byPachysolen tannophilus. Enzyme Microb Technol 6:447–450

  27. Watson NE, Prior BA, Lategan PM (1984b) Factors in acid treated bagasse inhibiting ethanol production fromd-xylose byPachysolen tannophilus. Enzyme Microb Technol 6:451–456

  28. Wiegel J (1980) Formation of ethanol by bacteria. A pledge for the use of extreme thermophilic anaerobic bacteria in industrial ethanol fermentation processes. Experientia 36:1434–1446

  29. Wolin EA, Wolin MJ, Wolfe RS (1963) Formation of methane by bacterial extracts. J Biol Chem 238:2882–2886

  30. Woods MA, Millis NF (1985) Effect of slow feeding of xylose on ethanol yield byPachysolen tannophilus. Biotechnol Lett 7:679–682

  31. Yu EKC, Levitin N, Saddler JN (1982) Production of 2,3-butanediol byKlebsiella pneumoniae grown on acid hydrolyzed wood hemicellulose. Biotechnol Lett 4:741–746

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Girishchandra B. Patel.

Additional information

This paper is issued as NRCC No. 26338

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Patel, G.B., MacKenzie, C.R. & Agnew, B.J. Fermentation of xylose and hemicellulose hydrolysates by an ethanol-adapted culture ofBacteroides polypragmatus . Arch. Microbiol. 146, 68–73 (1986). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00690161

Download citation

Key words

  • Bacteroides
  • Ethanol
  • Xylose
  • Hemicellulose
  • Fermentation
  • Ethanol tolerance