Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

The energy metabolism of the foot muscle of the jumping cockle,Cardium tuberculatum: Sustained anoxia versus muscular activity

  • 44 Accesses

  • 37 Citations

Summary

  1. 1.

    When touched by a starfish, the cockleCardium tuberculatum shows a typical escape response which results in a series of jumps. These are achieved by contractions of the foot muscle.C. tuberculatum can also survive periods of prolonged anoxia.

  2. 2.

    The concentrations of adenosine nucleotides, arginine phosphate, arginine, and various other metabolites related to anaerobic metabolism were determined in the foot muscle at rest, after jumping (7–11 and 19–31 contractions) and after 6 and 10 h of anoxia.

  3. 3.

    Jumping resulted in only small changes in the level of the adenylates with a slight drop of the energy charge, but the arginine phosphate store was depleted by more than 50%. Concurrently the concentration of arginine increased, while octopine accumulated as the main anaerobic end product; no accumulation of succinate ord- andl-lactate was observed.

  4. 4.

    During anoxia no significant change in the energy charge was observed. However, the level of arginine phosphate fell to 74% (6 h) and 53% (10 h) of the value in resting muscle with a concomitant increase in arginine concentration, but with virtually no formation of octopine. Instead,d-lactate, but notl-lactate, accumulated as the main glycolytic end product, despite the low activity of lactate dehydrogenase (7 U/g wet wt.), compared to octopine dehydrogenase (120 U/g wet wt.) measured in vitro. Succinate levels also increased.

  5. 5.

    During 10 h of anoxia 55% of the energy required is contributed by breakdown of arginine phosphate, whereas during muscular contraction 82% of the energy supply is derived from this reaction.

  6. 6.

    It is concluded that in the foot muscle ofC. tuberculatum anaerobic metabolism is different during anoxia and during muscular activity. In the first situation ATP is produced by formation ofd-lactate in glycolysis, and by the breakdown of arginine phosphate. During exercise, however, octopine represents the end product of glycogen breakdown, but the phosphagen is also utilized.

Pyruvate forms a branchpoint for the formation ofd-lactate or production of octopine; the mechanisms for the regulation of the lactate dehydrogenase versus octopine dehydrogenase reactions remain unknown.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Abbreviations

GDH :

α-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase

LDH :

lactate dehydrogenase

ODH :

octopine dehydrogenase

References

  1. Ebberink, R.H.M., Zurburg, W., Zandee, D.I.: The energy demand of the posterior adductor muscle ofMytilus edulis in catch during exposure to air. Mar. Biol. Lett.1, 23–31 (1979)

  2. Everse, J., Kaplan, N.D.: Lactate dehydrogenase: structure and function. Adv. Enzymol.37, 61–148 (1973)

  3. Gäde, G.: Anaerobic metabolism of the common cockle,Cardium edule. I. The utilization of glycogen and accumulation of multiple end products. Arch. Int. Physiol. Biochim.83, 879–886 (1975)

  4. Gäde, G.: Biological role of octopine formation in marine molluscs. Mar. Biol. Lett.1, 121–135 (1980)

  5. Gäde, G., Grieshaber, M.: A rapid and specific enzymatic method for the estimation ofl-arginine. Anal. Biochem.66, 393–399 (1975)

  6. Gäde, G., Head, E.J.H.: A rapid method for the purification of octopine dehydrogenase for the determination of cell metabolites. Experientia35, 304–305 (1979)

  7. Gäde, G., Wilps, H., Kluytmans, J.H.F.M., Zwaan, A.de: Glycogen degradation and end products of anaerobic metabolism in the fresh water bivalveAnodonta cygnea. J. Comp. Physiol.104, 79–85 (1975)

  8. Gäde, G., Weeda, E., Gabbott, P.A.: Changes in the level of octopine during the escape responses of the scallop,Pecten maximus (L.). J. Comp. Physiol.124, 121–127 (1978)

  9. Gäde, G., Meinardus, G., Carlsson, K.-H.: Tissue-specific isozymes of octopine dehydrogenase from mantle muscle and optic lobe ofLoligo vulgaris and octopine metabolism. 1rst Conference of the European Society for Comparative Physiology and Biochemistry, Liege, 1979 (in press)

  10. Gawehn, K., Bergmeyer, H.U.:d-Lactat. In: Methoden der enzymatischen Analyse, Bd. 2. Bergmeyer, H.U. (ed.), pp. 1538–1541. Weinheim: Verlag Chemie 1974

  11. Gollnick, P.D., Hermansen, L.: Biochemical adaptations to exercise: anaerobic metabolism. Exercise Sport Sci. Rev.1, 1–43 (1973)

  12. Grieshaber, M.: Breakdown and formation of high-energy phosphates and octopine in the adductor muscle of the scallop,Chlamys opercularis (L.), during escape swimming and recovery. J. Comp. Physiol.126, 269–276 (1978)

  13. Grieshaber, M., Gäde, G.: Energy supply and the formation of octopine in the adductor muscle of the scallop,Pecten jacobaeus (Lamarck). Comp. Biochem. Physiol.58B, 249–252 (1977)

  14. Grieshaber, M., Kronig, E., Koormann, R.: A photometric estimation of phospho-l-arginine, arginine and octopine using homogenous octopine dehydrogenase isoenzyme 2 from the squid,Loligo vulgaris. Hoppe Seylers Z. Physiol. Chem.359, 133–136 (1978)

  15. Gutmann, I., Wahlefeld, A.W.:l-(+)-Lactat. Bestimmung mit Lactat-Dehydrogenase and NAD. In: Methoden der enzymatischen Analyse, Bd. 2. Bergmeyer, H.U. (ed.), pp. 1510–1514. Weinheim: Verlag Chemie 1974

  16. Jaworek, D., Gruber, W., Bergmeyer, H.U.: Adenosin-5′-diphosphat und Adenosin-5′-monophosphat. In: Methoden der enzymatischen Analyse, Bd. 2. Bergmeyer, H.U. (ed.), pp. 2179–2181. Weinheim: Verlag Chemie 1974

  17. Kluytmans, J.H., Veenhof, P.R., Zwaan, A. de: Anaerobic production of volatile fatty acids in the sea musselMytilus edulis L. J. Comp. Physiol.104, 71–78 (1975)

  18. Lamprecht, W., Trautschold, I.: ATP, Bestimmung mit Hexokinase und Glucose-6-phosphat-Dehydrogenase. In: Methoden der enzymatischen Analyse, Bd. 2. Bergmeyer, H.U. (ed.), pp. 2151–2159. Weinheim: Verlag Chemie 1974

  19. Storey, K.B., Storey, J.M.: Octopine metabolism in the cuttlefish,Sepia officinalis: octopine production by muscle and its role as an aerobic substrate for non-muscular tissues. J. Comp. Physiol.131, 311–319 (1979)

  20. Wieser, W., Wright, E.:d-lactate formation,d-LDH activity and glycolytic potential ofHelix pomatia L. J. Comp. Physiol.126, 249–255 (1978)

  21. Williamson, D.H.:l-Alanin. Bestimmung mit Alanin-Dehydrogenase. In: Methoden der enzymatischen Analyse, Bd. 2. Bergmeyer, H.U. (ed.), pp. 1724–1727. Weinheim: Verlag Chemie 1974

  22. Williamson, J.R.: Succinat. In: Methoden der enzymatischen Analyse, Bd. 2. Bergmeyer, H.U. (ed.), pp. 1661–1666. Weinheim: Verlag Chemie 1974

  23. Zwaan, A. de: Anaerobic energy metabolism in bivalve molluscs. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Ann. Rev.15, 103–187 (1977)

  24. Zwaan, A. de, Mohamed, A.M., Geraerts, W.P.M.: Glycogen degradation and the accumulation of compounds during anaerobiosis in the fresh water snailLymnaea stagnalis. Neth. J. Zool.26, 549–557 (1976)

  25. Zwaan, A. de, Thompson, R.J., Livingstone, D.R.: Physiological and biochemical aspects of the valve snap and valve closure responses in the giant scallopPlacopecten magellanicus. II. Biochemistry. J. Comp. Physiol.137, 105–114 (1980)

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Gäde, G. The energy metabolism of the foot muscle of the jumping cockle,Cardium tuberculatum: Sustained anoxia versus muscular activity. J Comp Physiol B 137, 177–182 (1980). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00689218

Download citation

Keywords

  • Succinate
  • Lactate Dehydrogenase
  • Anaerobic Metabolism
  • Muscular Activity
  • Energy Charge