Larvae of the marine mosquito,Aëdes togoi Theobald, tolerate environmental salinities ranging from fresh water to 300% sea water. When they were transferred from fresh water to sea water, sodium concentration in the haemolymph increased for the first 2 days and decreased to the seawater-adapted level within 4 days. When transferred from sea water to fresh water, the sodium concentration decreased markedly for the first 2 days and attained the freshwater adapted level after 4 days. When the larvae in sea water were ligated near the anus, they died within 3 days, showing an increased sodium level in the haemolymph. The larvae ligated at the neck lost considerable body weight and died within 4 days.
When the anal portion, a terminal portion of the hindgut, was catheterized, the larvae maintained in sea water showed an increase in haemolymph sodium. The anal portion epithelium of the larvae adapted to 100 and 150% sea water demonstrated a strong positive reaction to the histochemical assay for chloride ions, whereas the reaction was negative or weakly positive in freshwater adapted larvae. In the larvae with the anal papillae ligated, a slight increase in haemolymph sodium occurred while in sea water. The anal papillae were weakly positive to chloride ions. Unlike salt-water mosquito larvae of the other species, in which the rectum is considered to be involved in hyperosmotic urine production and the anal papillae appear to be the extrarenal organ, the anal portion inA. togoi larvae seems to play an important role in excretion of excess ions when placed in hyperosmotic media.
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Asakura, K. The anal portion as a salt-excreting organ in a seawater mosquito larva,Aëdes togoi Theobald. J Comp Physiol B 138, 59–65 (1980). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00688736
- Fresh Water
- Sodium Concentration
- Sodium Level
- Mosquito Larva
- Environmental Salinity