Advertisement

Springer Nature is making Coronavirus research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Canine distemper virus clearance in chronic inflammatory demyelination

  • 119 Accesses

  • 72 Citations

Summary

The distribution of canine distemper virus (CDV) antigen was examined in the brains of 14 dogs with chronic nervous distemper using a monoclonal antibody against a major viral protein. In ten of these dogs, neutralizing anti-CDV antibody titers were determined in serum and unconcentrated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In 19% of the inflammatory demyelinating lesions, large amounts of CDV antigen were found; in 34% of these lesions only residual traces of virus were seen and in almost half of the lesions (47%) no CDV could be demonstrated. In four dogs neutralizing antibodies were found in the serum only; in one dog in the CSF only and in 5 dogs both in serum and CSF. Because of the correlation between the presence of inflammation, intrathecal antiviral antibodies and disappearance of CDV from the lesions, it was concluded that the inflammatory response in distemper is associated with viral clearance from the lesions. Associated immune-mediated cytotoxic reactions could explain exacerbation of the initial virus-induced demyelinating lesions. Despite the presence of an apparently effective intrathecal antiviral immune response, fresh non-inflammatory lesions as a result of viral replication and spread in the white matter coexisted with inflammatory ones in which viral clearance had taken place. The role and mechanism of such virus persistence are discussed.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Appel MJG, Robson DS (1973) A microneutralization test for canine distemper virus. Am J Vet Res 34:1459–1463

  2. Appel MJG, Shek WR, Summers BA (1982) Lymphocytemediated immune cytotoxicity in dogs infected with virulent canine distemper virus. Infect Immun 37:592–600

  3. Appel MJG, Mendelson SG, Hall WW (1984) Macrophage Fc receptors control infectivity and neutralization of canine distemper virus-antibody complexes. J Virol 51:643–649

  4. Cerruti-Sola S, Kristensen F, Vandevelde M, Bichsel P, Kihm U (1983) Lymphocyte responsiveness to lectin and myelin antigens in canine distemper infection in relation to the development of demyelinating lesions. J Neuroimmunol 4:77–90

  5. Hall WW, Imagawa DT, Choppin PW (1979) Immunological evidence for the synthesis of all canine distemper virus polypeptides in chronic neurological diseases in dogs. Chronic distemper and old dog encephalitis differ from SSPE in man. Virology 98:283–287

  6. Ho CK, Babiuk LA (1979) Immune mechanisms against canine distemper. II. Role of antibody and antigen modulation and prevention of intercellular and extracellular spread of canine distemper virus. Immunology 38:765–772

  7. Ho CK, Babiuk LA (1980) Immune mechanisms against canine distemper. III. Role of complement lysis in the immunity and persistent infection of canine distemper virus. Immunology 39:231–237

  8. Innes JRM, Saunders LZ (1962) Comparative neuropathology. Academic Press, New York, pp 373–384

  9. Kimoto T (1986) In vitro and in vivo properties of the virus causing natural canine distemper encephalitis. J Gen Virol 67:487–503

  10. Köhler G, Milstein C (1970) Continuous cultures of fused cells secreting antibody of predefined specificity. Nature 256:680–685

  11. Krakowka S, McCullough B, Koestner A, Olsen R (1973) Myelin-specific autoantibodies associated with central nervous system demyelination in canine distemper virus infection. Infect Immun 8:819–827

  12. Krakowka S, Olsen R, Confer A, Koestner A, McCullough B (1975) Serologic response to canine distemper viral antigens in gnotobiotic dogs infected with canine distemper virus. J Infect Dis 132:384–392

  13. Miele JA, Krakowka S (1983) Antibody responses to virion polypeptides in gnotobiotic dogs infected with canine distemper virus. Infect Immun 41:869–871

  14. Shapshak P, Graves MC, Imagawa DT (1982) Polypeptides of canine distemper virus strains derived from dogs with chronic neurological diseases. Virology 122:158–170

  15. Sternberger LA (1979) Immunocytochemistry, 2nd edn Wiley, New York Chichester Brisbane Toronto

  16. Summers BA, Greisen HA, Appel MJG (1983) Does virus persist in the uvea in multiple sclerosis, as in canine distemper encephalomyelitis? Lancet ii:372–375

  17. Summers BA, Greisen HA, Appel MJG (1984) Canine distemper and experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in the dog: comparative patterns of demyelination. J Comp Pathol 94:575–589

  18. Vandevelde M, Higgins RJ, Kristensen B, Kristensen F, Steck A, Kihm U (1982) Demyelination in experimental canine distemper virus infection: immunological, pathologic and immunohistological studies. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 56:285–293

  19. Vandevelde M, Zurbriggen A, Higgins RJ, Palmer D (1985) Spread and distribution of viral antigen in nervous canine distemper. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 67:211–218

  20. Vandevelde M, Zurbriggen A, Steck A, Bichsel P (1986) Studies on the intrathecal humoral immune response in canine distemper encephalitis. J Neuroimmunol 11:41–51

  21. Zurbriggen A, Vandevelde M, Dumas M (1986) Secondary degeneration of oligodendrocytes in canine distemper virus infection in vitro. Lab Invest 54:424–431

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to M. Vandevelde.

Additional information

Dedicated to Prof. F. Seitelberger on the occasion of his seventieth birthday

Supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation (grant no. 3.949.84) and the Swiss Multiple Sclerosis Society

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Bollo, E., Zurbriggen, A., Vandevelde, M. et al. Canine distemper virus clearance in chronic inflammatory demyelination. Acta Neuropathol 72, 69–73 (1986). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00687949

Download citation

Key words

  • Chronic canine distemper infection
  • Inflammation
  • Virus
  • Clearance
  • Demyelination