We calculate the rate at which bubbles nucleate in4He when the liquid is at negative pressure. Previous calculations have predicted that at low temperatures (T≤0.3 K) the nucleation rate remains low until a pressure of roughly −15 bar is reached. We show that this result is incorrect, and that at a critical pressure Pc (≃−9 bar) the liquid becomes macroscopically unstable. We have made a calculation of the nucleation rate allowing for this effect. It is shown that the effect of quantum nucleation is small and probably hard to observe experimentally. Finally, we demonstrate that one can understand the pressure dependence of the phonon dispersion relation by a simple model. This model uses a parameter which also enters into the nucleation calculation.
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Xiong, Q., Maris, H.J. Liquid helium at negative pressures: Nucleation of bubbles and anomalous phonon dispersion. J Low Temp Phys 77, 347–369 (1989). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00682750
- Simple Model
- Dispersion Relation
- Magnetic Material
- Negative Pressure