Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Influence of food concentration on the physiological energetics and growth ofOstrea edulis larvae

  • 104 Accesses

  • 22 Citations


Feeding, respiration and growth rates of oyster (Ostrea edulis L.) larvae reared at five food levels were measured throughout the entire larval period. Energy budgets were derived as a function of alga (Isochrysis galbana Parke) food concentration. Ingestion rate (IR, cells h-1) and oxygen consumption rate (\(V_{O_2 } \), nl h-1) were almost isometric functions of larval size [ash-free dry weight, (AFDW, μg)], characterized by the equations: IR=803.9 AFDW1.13 and\(V_{O_2 } \)=4.85 AFDW1.09. Ingested ration was directly correlated to cell concentration up to a maximum at 200 cells μl-1, with further increases failing to support higher ingestion rates. Likewise, growth rate linearly increased with food ration up to 100 cells μl-1 (max. growth efficiency,K 1=25%) and reached a maximum at 200 cells μl-1 (growth rate=5.6 μm d-1), with further increases in food not supporting significantly faster growth. Maintenance ration was 2 to 3% daily dry weight (DW); optimum ration increased during larval development from 5 to 20% DW; maximum ration was 20% DW. During larval rearing, an increasing feeding schedule of 50, 100 and 200 cells μl-1 from Days 0, 5 and 10, respectively, is recommended.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Bayne BL (1976) Aspects of reproduction in bivalve molluscs In: Wiley M (ed) Estuarine processes. Vol. 1. Academic Press, New York, pp 432–448

  2. Bayne BL (1983). Physiological ecology of marine molluscan larvae In: Wilbur KM (ed) The Mollusca. Vol. 3. Academic Press, New York, pp 299–343

  3. Bayne BL, Hawkins AJS, Navarro E (1987) Feeding and digestion by the musselMytilus edulis L. (Bivalvia: Mollusca) in mixtures of silt and algal cells at low concentrations. J exp mar Biol Ecol 111: 1–22

  4. Bayne BL, Hawkins AJS, Navarro E, Iglesias JIP (1989) The effects of seston concentration on feeding, digestion and growth in the musselMytilus edulis L. (Bivalvia: Mollusca). Mar Ecol Prog Ser 55: 47–54

  5. Bayne BL, Newell RC (1983) Physiological energetics of marine molluscs. In: Wilbur KM (ed) The Mollusca. Vol. 14. Academic Press, New York, pp 407–515

  6. Beiras R (1992) Fisiología del crecimiento en larvas y postlarvas deOstrea edulis L. Aplicaciones para el cultivo en criadero. Ph.D. thesis, University of Santiago de Compostela

  7. Beiras R, Pérez Camacho A, Albentosa M (1990) Tasas de filtración en larva de ostra (Ostrea edulis L.). In: Landín A, Cerviño A (eds) Proceedings of the third National Congress on Aquaculture. Experimental Centre of Vilaxoán, Apd. 208, Vilagarcía, Pontevedra, Spain

  8. Beiras R, Pérez Camacho A, Albentosa M (1994) Influence of temperature on the physiology of growth inRuditapes decussatus (L.) larvae. J Shellfish Res (in press)

  9. Berg K, Ockelmann KW (1959) The respiration of freshwater snails J exp Biol 36: 690–708

  10. Crisp DJ, Yule AB, White KN (1985) Feeding by oyster larvae: the functional response, energy budget and a comparison with mussel larvae. J mar biol Ass UK 65: 759–783

  11. Foster-Smith RL (1975) The effect of concentration of suspension on the filtration rates and pseudofaecal production forMytilus edulis L.,Cerastoderma edule L., andVenerupis pullastra (Mendegu). J exp mar Biol Ecol 17: 1–22

  12. Foster-Smith RL (1976) Some mechanisms for the control of pumping activity in bivalves. Mar behav Physiol 4: 41–60

  13. Frost BW (1972) Effects of size and concentration of food particles on the feeding behaviour of the marine planktonic copepodCalanus pacificus. Limnol Oceanogr 17: 805–815

  14. Gallager SM (1988) Visual observations of particle manipulation during feeding in larvae of a bivalve mollusc. Bull mar Sci 43: 344–365

  15. Gerdes D (1983 a) The pacific oysterCrassostrea gigas. Part I. Feeding behaviour of larvae and adults. Aquaculture, Amsterdam 31: 195–219

  16. Gerdes D (1983b) The pacific oyster,Crassostrea gigas. Part II. Oxygen consumption of larvae and adults. Aquaculture, Amsterdam 31:221–231

  17. Glass NR (1969) Discussion of calculation of power function with special reference to respiratory metabolism in fish. J Fish Res Bd Can 26: 2643–2650

  18. Gnaiger E (1983) Heat dissipation and energetic efficiency in animal anoxibiosis: economy contra power. J exp Zool 228: 471–490

  19. Ivlev VS (1945) The biological productivity of waters. Ups sovrem Biol 19:98–120 [In Russ]. Trans J Fish Res Bd Can 23:1727–1759

  20. Jespersen H, Olsen K (1982) Bioenergetics in veliger larvae ofMytilus edulis L. Ophelia 21: 101–113

  21. Kiørboe T, Møhlenberg F, Nicolajsen H (1982) Ingestion and gut clearance in the planktonic copepodCentropages hamatus (Lilljeborg) in relation to food concentration and temperature. Ophelia 21: 181–194

  22. Lam RK, Frost BW (1976) Model of copepod filtering response to changes in size and concentration of food. Limnol Oceanogr 21: 490–500

  23. Lehman JT (1976) The filter-feeder as an optimal forager, and the predicted shapes of feeding curves. Limnol Oceanogr 21: 501–516

  24. MacDonald BA (1988) Physiological energetics of Japanese scallopPatinopecten yessoensis laryae. J exp mar Biol Ecol 120: 155–170

  25. Manahan DT, Crisp DJ (1982) The role of dissolved organic material in the nutrition of pelagic larvae: amino acid uptake by bivalve veligers. Am Zool 22: 635–646

  26. Mann R, Gallager SM (1985) Physiological and biochemical energetics of larvae ofTeredo navalis L. andBankia gouldi (Bartsch) (Bivalvia: Teredinidae). J exp mar Biol Ecol 85: 211–228

  27. Mullin MM, Stewart EF, Fuglister FJ (1975) Ingestion by planktonic grazers as a function of concentration of food. Limnol Oceanogr 20:259–262

  28. Navarro E, Iglesias JIP, Ortega MM (1992) Natural sediment as a food source for the cockleCerastoderma edule (L): effect of variable particle concentration on feeding, digestion and the scope for growth. J exp mar Biol Ecol 156:69–87

  29. Navarro JM, Winter JE (1982) Ingestion rate, assimilation efficiency and energy balance inMytilus chilensis in relation to body size and different algal concentrations. Mar Biol 67: 255–266

  30. Paloheimo JE, Dickie LM (1966) Food and growth of fishes. II. Effects of food and temperature on the relation between metabolism and body weight. J Fish Res Bd Can 23: 869–908

  31. Pérez Camacho A, Román G, Torre M (1977) Experiencias en cultivo de larvas de tres especies de moluscos bivalvos:Venerupis pullastra (Montagu),Venerupis decussata (Linnaeus) yOstrea edulis (Linnaeus). Boln Inst esp Oceanogr 235: 10–61

  32. Quayle DB (1948) Biology ofVenerupis pullastra (Montagu). Ph.D. thesis, University of Glasgow

  33. Rhodes EW, Landers WS (1973) Growth of oyster larvae,Crassostrea virginica, of various sizes in different concentrations of the chrysophyteIsochrysis galbana. Proc natn Shellfish Ass 63:53–59

  34. Rice MA, Wallis K, Stephens G (1980) Influx and net flux of amino acids into larval and juvenile European flat oysters,Ostreaedulis (L.). J exp mar Biol Ecol 48: 51–59

  35. Riisgård HU (1988) Feeding rates in hard clam (Mercenaria mercenaria) veliger larvae as a function of algal (Isochrysis galbana) concentration. J Shellfish Res 7: 377–380

  36. Riisgård HU, Randløv A, Hamburger K (1981) Oxygen consumption and clearance rate as a function of size inMytilus edulis L. veliger larvae. Ophelia 20: 179–183

  37. Schulte EH (1975) Influence of algal concentration and temperature on the filtration rate ofMytilus edulis. Mar Biol 30: 331–341

  38. Sprung M (1984 a) Physiological energetics of mussel larvae (Mytilus edulis). I. Shell growth and biomass. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 17: 283–293

  39. Sprung M (1984 b) Physiological energetics of mussel larvae (Mytilus edulis). II. Food uptake. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 17:295–303

  40. Sprung M (1984 c) Physiological energetics of mussel larvae (Mytilus edulis). III. Respiration. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 18: 171–178

  41. Sprung M (1984 d) Physiological energetics of mussel larvae (Mytilus edulis). IV. Efficiencies. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 18: 179–186

  42. Strathmann RR (1987) Larval feeding. In: Giese AC, Pearse JS, Pearse VB (eds) Reproduction of marine invertebrates. Vol 9. Blackwell, Palo Alto, California, pp 465–550

  43. Walne PR (1965) Observations on the influence of food supply and temperature on the feeding and growth of the larvae ofOstrea edulis L. Fish Invest Lond 24(2): 1–45

  44. Walne PR (1972) The influence of current speed, body size and water temperature on the filtration rate of five species of bivalves. J mar biol Ass UK 52:345–374

  45. Widdows J, Fieth P, Worrall CM (1979) Relationships between seston, available food and feeding activity in the common musselMytilus edulis. Mar Biol 50: 195–207

  46. Wilson JH (1979) Observations on the grazing rates and growth ofOstrea edulis L. larvae when fed algal cultures of different ages. J expmar Biol Ecol 38: 187–199

  47. Wilson JH (1980) Particle retention and selection by larvae and spat ofOstrea edulis in algal suspensions. Mar Biol 57: 135–145

  48. Winberg GG (1956) Rate of metabolism and food requirements of fishes. Belorussian State University [In Russ] [Transl J Fish Res Bd Can 194:1–202]

  49. Winter J (1978) A review on the knowledge of suspension-feeding in lamellibranchiate bivalves, with special reference to artificial aquaculture systems. Aquaculture, Amsterdam 13: 1–33

  50. Zeuthen E (1953) Oxygen uptake as related to body size in organisms. Q Rev Biol 28: 1–12

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to R. Beiras.

Additional information

Communicated by J. M. Pérès, Marseille

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Beiras, R., Camacho, A.P. Influence of food concentration on the physiological energetics and growth ofOstrea edulis larvae. Mar. Biol. 120, 427–435 (1994). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00680217

Download citation


  • Food Concentration
  • Ingestion Rate
  • Oxygen Consumption Rate
  • Optimum Ration
  • Growth Efficiency