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Transgenic and gene knockout mice in cancer research

Abstract

Transgenic animal technology, and the use of germline manipulation for the creation of targeted gene mutations, has resulted in a plethora of murine models for cancer research. Our understanding of some of the important issues regarding the mechanisms controlling cell division, differentiation and death has dramatically advanced in recent years through exploitation of these techniques to generate transgenic mice. In particular, the generation of mice with targeted mutations in genes encoding proteins of oncological interest has proved to be a useful way of elucidating the function of these gene productsin vivo. Transgenic mouse models have provided some insight into the complex oncogenic events contributing to cellular dysregulation and the loss of growth control that can lead to tumorigenesis. These animal studies have highlighted the fact that there are many different stages at which the loss of cell cycle control can occur, as a result of mutations affecting proteins anywhere from the cell surface to the nucleus. Although mutations affecting growth factors, growth factor receptors, signal transduction molecules, cytoplasmic proteins or nuclear proteins might appear to be very distinct, the end result of these changes may be accelerated and unchecked cell growth ultimately leading to cancer. It is beyond the scope of this review to mention every animal model that has been developed for cancer research, especially since many of the early studies have been covered extensively in previous reviews. This article will instead focus on a small selection of transgenic and knockout animal models which exemplify how proteins from distinct localisations along multiple pathways can contribute to loss of cell cycle control and the pathogenesis of cancer.

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Correspondence to J. L. Viney.

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Viney, J.L. Transgenic and gene knockout mice in cancer research. Cancer Metast Rev 14, 77–90 (1995). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00665792

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Key words

  • cancer
  • tumorigenesis
  • transgenic
  • knockout
  • mice