Golden-mantled ground squirrels,Spermophilus lateralis, were kept in a warm room (21 °C) until they had begun to lose weight following attaining a peak of body weight in the autumn. An experimental group was then transferred to a cold room (−3 °C) and kept there for about 9 months before being returned to the warm room. A control group was kept in the warm room throughout. The peaks in body weight of animals that had been exposed to the cold occurred 4.5 months later than those of the control animals. This difference was maintained when the animals were studied for a further year. Reproductive condition in the experimental animals, after they had been returned to the warm room, also occurred several months later than that in control animals. An extended sojourn in the cold therefore results in a phase shift in circannual cycles of this species.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Canguilhem, B., Schieber, J.-P., Koch, A.: Rhythme circannuel pondéral du hamster d'europe (Cricetus cricetus). Influences respectives de la photopériode et de la température externe sur son déroulement. Arch. Sci. Physiol.27, 67–90 (1973)
Goss, R.J., Dinsmore, C.E., Grimes, L.N., Rosen, J.K.: Expression and suppression of the circannual antler growth in deer. In: Circannual clocks: annual biological rhythms. Pengelley, E.T. (ed.), pp. 393–422. New York: Academic Press 1974
Gwinner, E.: Circadian and circannual rhythms in birds. In: Avian biology, Vol. 5. Farner, D.S., King, J.R. (eds.), pp. 221–285. New York: Academic Press 1975
Gwinner, E.: Photoperiodic synchronization of circannual rhythms in the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris). Naturwissenschaften64, 44 (1977)
Morton, M.L., Sherman, P.W.: Effects of a spring snowstorm on behavior, reproduction, and survival of Belding's ground squirrels. Can. J. Zool.56, 2578–2590 (1978)
Mrosovsky, N.: Hibernation and the hypothalamus. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts 1971
Mrosovsky, N.: The amplitude and period of circannual cycles of body weight in golden-mantled ground squirrels with medial hypothalamic lesions. Brain Res.99, 97–116 (1975)
Mrosovsky, N.: Circannual cycles in hibernators. In: Strategies in cold: natural torpidity and thermogenesis. Wang, L.C.H., Hudson, J.W. (eds.), pp. 21–65. New York: Academic Press 1978
Mrosovsky, N.: Circannual cycles in golden-mantled ground squirrels: experiments with food deprivation and effects of temperature on periodicity. J. Comp. Physiol.136, 355–360 (1980)
Mrosovsky, N., Lang, K.: Disturbances in the annual weight and hibernation cycles of thirteen-lined ground squirrels kept in constant conditions and the effects of temperature changes. J. Interdiscipl. Cycle Res.2, 79–90 (1971)
Pengelley, E.T. (ed.): Circannual clocks: annual biological rhythms. New York: Academic Press 1974
Pengelley, E.T., Asmundson, S.J.: An analysis of the mechanisms by which mammalian hibernators synchronize their behavioural physiology with the environment. In: Hibernation and hypothermia, perspectives and challenges. South, F.E., Hannon, J.P., Willis, J.R., Pengelley, E.T., Alpert, N.R. (eds.), pp. 637–661. Amsterdam: Elsevier 1972
Pengelley, E.T., Fisher, K.C.: Onset and cessation of hibernation under constant temperature and light in the golden-mantled ground squirrel (Citellus laleralis). Nature180, 1371–1372 (1957)
Pengelley, E.T., Fisher, K.C.: The effect of temperature and photoperiod on the yearly hibernating behavior of captive golden-mantled ground squirrels (Citellus lateralis tescorum). Can. J. Zool.41, 1103–1120 (1963)
Pengelley, E.T., Kelly, K.H.: A “circannian” rhythm in hibernating species of the genusCitellus with observations on their physiological evolution. Comp. Biochem. Physiol.19, 603–617 (1966)
Pengelley, E.T., Aloia, R.C., Barnes, B., Whitson, D.: Comparative temporal aspects in hibernation between male and female golden-mantled ground squirrels,Citellus lateralis. Abstract, Symposium on Strategies in cold: natural torpidity and thermogenesis, p. 10. Jasper, Alberta 1977
Pengelley, E.T., Aloia, R.C., Barnes, B.M.: Circannual rhythmicity in the hibernating ground squirrelCitellus lateralis under constant light and hyperthermic ambient temperature. Comp. Biochem. Physiol.61A, 599–603 (1978)
Pollock, A.M.: Seasonal changes in appetite and sexual condition in red deer stags maintained on a six-month photoperiod. J. Physiol.244, 95P-96P (1975)
Wang, L.C.H.: Radiotelemetric study of hibernation under natural and laboratory conditions. Am. J. Physiol.224, 673–677 (1973)
Wang, L.C.H.: Energetic and field aspects of mammalian torpor: the Richardson's ground squirrel. In: Strategies in cold: natural torpidity and thermogenesis. Wang, L.C.H., Hudson, J.W. (eds.). pp. 109–145. New York: Academic Press 1978
Wells, L.J., Zalesky, M.: Effects of low environmental temperature on the reproductive organs of male mammals with annual aspermia. Am. J. Anat.60, 429–447 (1940)
I thank Kirsteen Lang for much help and Linda Jones and others at the Environmental Sciences Centre, Kananaskis, for their cooperation. Janice Farintosh, Yasmin Shah and John Ting assisted with the experiments. The work was supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada.
About this article
Cite this article
Mrosovsky, N. Circannual cycles in golden-mantled ground squirrels: phase shift produced by low temperatures. J. Comp. Physiol. 136, 349–353 (1980). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00657356
- Body Weight
- Experimental Animal
- Phase Shift
- Control Animal
- Ground Squirrel