Making use of a model Hamiltonian, which includes, besides the kinetic energy and the BCS-like pairing energy, the spin exchange energy as well as the dipolar interaction energy, we study theoretically the collective modes of the Balian - Werthamer state in the collisionless limit. In the absence of the dipolar interaction energy, the collective modes are classified according to their total angular momentumJ. Among 18 distinct modes, one mode withJ=0 and three modes withJ=1 are gapless. The latter modes couple with the spin fluctuation and are identified with spin wave modes. The effect of the dipolar interaction on these modes is discussed.
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Supported by the National Science Foundation.
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Maki, K. Collective modes and spin waves in superfluid3He-B. J Low Temp Phys 24, 755–768 (1976). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00657178
- Kinetic Energy
- Interaction Energy
- Magnetic Material
- Exchange Energy
- Dipolar Interaction