The time evolution of a Bose system passing through the critical point is considered. The solution of the nonlinear integrodifferential equation that governs the kinetics demonstrates that the new phase formation proceeds by the set of essentially nonequilibrium states. The phase transition in an ideal Bose gas is of first order and can be completed att=∞ only if there are no nuclei of the new phase at the beginning of the cooling process. With nuclei the Bose condensate formation takes a finite time. A Bose gas with interaction between Bose particles exhibits a second-order phase transition with a finite time of new phase formation even without nuclei. The time evolution of an energy spectrum of a Bose system following the variation of its distribution function is considered and it is shown that the appearance of superfluidity coincides with the instant of Bose condensate formation.
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Levich, E., Yakhot, V. Kinetics of phase transition in ideal and weakly interacting bose gas. J Low Temp Phys 27, 107–124 (1977). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00654640
- Phase Transition
- Distribution Function
- Time Evolution
- Energy Spectrum
- Magnetic Material