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Apparent superluminal velocities due to the curvature of space

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Abstract

Instead of the difficult concept of a three-dimensional curved space one can use two partial models of two-dimensional curved subspaces. If a two-dimensional subspace is curved the arbitrary angle of view must have a distorted shape which has in consequence an optical illusion. The distorted shape of ϕ must be corrected to the real angle1φ, valid in uncurved space according to the relation φ=1φf(ρ) where ρ is the central angle in theoretical sphere. If a two-dimensional subspace is just a spheric surface, the correction factor isf s (ρ)≅ρ/sin ρ, appropriate to the angle distance ρ from observer to the observed object.

In this way it is possible to explain why, in remote parts of the Universe, it was observed that their assumed components were receding at velocities larger than that of light, because the correction factorf(ρ) can change up to infinity for ρ=π. On the other hand there are many clustering of galaxies, because the correction factor for a hyperbolic spool space or internal part of annuloid is between zero and one: 0<f A (ρ))<1.

Conception considered explains the cause of polarizing effect and interference phenomenon of light without assuming of components, too, but it is in contradiction with the recent interpretation of the spectrum.

If we consider the Universe closed into itself due to curvature the existence of superluminal velocities is a undirect evidence for it. If we consider local hyperbolic spool spaces or that of annuloid, the existence of galaxies clustering is a needful but not sufficient condition for it.

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Souček, J. Apparent superluminal velocities due to the curvature of space. Astrophys Space Sci 94, 319–331 (1983). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00653722

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Keywords

  • Correction Factor
  • Spheric Surface
  • Curve Space
  • Partial Model
  • Internal Part