Deoxidation and microalloying of cast structural steel with titanium usually impair its plasticity and ductility.
The effect of titanium on the cold brittleness of structural steel is the resultant of two opposing factors: a) increased brittleness due to the precipitation of hard and brittle phases in the boundaries and within the grains; b) increased ductility due to removal of nitrogen from the solid solution (or from some of the nitrides) and removal of susceptibility to aging.
The anisotropy of the plasticity and ductility of structural steel results mainly from the presence of excess phases-sulfides (sulfosilicates), nitrides (carbonitrides), and borides.
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Gol'dshtein, Y.E., Razumov, Y.G. & Lazareva, M.P. Titanium in structural steels. Met Sci Heat Treat 11, 305–309 (1969). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00653202
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