Rare-earth metals have a substantial effect on the amount, size, and composition of nonmetallic inclusions in austenitic chromium-nickel steel, and also modify the composition and quantitative relationship between spinels and silicates.
Rare-earth metals increase the ductility of the steel in long-term tests. With increasing concentrations of rare-earth metals the time before fracture first increases sharply, reaching a maximum at 0.1%, and then decreases to the original value. The creep rate first decreases or does not change, and then increases sharply.
The scale resistance of austenitic chromium-nickel steels is increased considerably by the addition of rare-earth metals.
Rare-earth metals have no effect on the grain size of the steel or the resistance to intercrystalline corrosion.
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Farafonov, V.K., Shteinberg, M.M., Tret'yakova, Z.G. et al. Influence of rare-earth metals on the properties of austenitic chromium-nickel steel. Met Sci Heat Treat 9, 294–297 (1967). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00652968
- Grain Size
- Creep Rate
- Substantial Effect