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Effect of state of charge on impedance spectrum of sealed cells Part II: Lead acid batteries

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Alternating current impedance spectroscopy (ACIS) was performed on commercial sealed lead acid batteries. A method previously developed in the literature was modified to determine the state of charge of sealed lead acid cells by obtaining the impedance spectrum in a wide frequency range. The data were sensitive to state of charge at low frequencies. A modified Randles' circuit was used to fit the impedance data. The effect of the state of charge on the equivalent circuit parameters was determined.

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R Ω :

ohmic resistance of battery (Ω)

C dl :

double layer capacitance (F)

Q 1 :

constant phase element representing double layer capacitance

Q 2 :

constant phase element representing Warburg diffusion

O :

finite diffusion element

R t :

charge transfer resistance (Ω)

R s,R p :

equivalent series and parallel resistance (Ω)

C s,C p :

equivalent series and parallel capacitance (F)


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Viswanathan, V.V., Salkind, A.J., Kelley, J.J. et al. Effect of state of charge on impedance spectrum of sealed cells Part II: Lead acid batteries. J Appl Electrochem 25, 729–739 (1995).

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  • Spectroscopy
  • Impedance Spectroscopy
  • Equivalent Circuit
  • Impedance Spectrum
  • Impedance Data