Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Solvent donor and acceptor properties of pyridine

Abstract

Polarographic and cyclovoltammetric measurements on the perchlorates of Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+, Cs+, Tl+, Ba2+ and Ni2+ as well as on the trifluoromethane sulfonates of Zn2+, Cd2+, Pb2+, Cu2+, Cu+, Mn2+ and Co2+ were carried out. The data allowed the evaluation of the different donor behavior of pyridine towards hard, border line and soft cations. The conclusions drawn from electrochemical investigations were supported by Gibbs energies of transfer for cations, which were derived from both electrochemical measurements based on the bis(biphenyl)chromium assumption and from solubility studies based on the tetraphenylarsonium tetraphenylborate assumption. The acceptor properties of pyridine were obtained from the solvatochromic dyes bis(cyano)bis(1,10-phenanthroline)iron(II) and bis(cyano)bis(3,4,7,8-tetramethyl-1,10-phenanthroline)iron(II) and the results were compared with the acceptor number and the E T -value.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. 1.

    R. G. Pearson,J. Am. Chem. Soc. 85, 3533 (1963).

  2. 2.

    M. Johnsson and I. Persson,Inorg. Chim. Acta 127, 15 (1987).

  3. 3.

    S. Ahrland and S.-I. Ishiguro,Inorg. Chim. Acta 142, 277 (1988).

  4. 4.

    S. Ahrland, S. Ishiguro, A. Marton, and I. Persson,Acta Chem. Scand. Ser. A 39, 227 (1985).

  5. 5.

    S. Ahrland, S.-I. Ishiguro, and I. Persson,Acta Chem. Scand. Ser. A 40, 418 (1986).

  6. 6.

    I. Persson, M. Sandström, and P. L. Goggin,Inorg. Chim. Acta 129, 183 (1987).

  7. 7.

    G. Gritzner and G. Kraml,Inorg. Chim. Acta 156, 227 (1989).

  8. 8.

    G. Gritzner,Z. Phys. Chem. (München) 158, 99 (1988).

  9. 9.

    V. Gutmann and E. Wychera,Inorg. Nucl. Chem. Lett. 2, 257 (1966).

  10. 10.

    V. Gutmann,The Donor-Acceptor Approach to Molecular Interactions (Plenum, New York, 1978), and references cited.

  11. 11.

    I. A. Koppel and V. A. Palm, inAdvances in Linear Free Energy Relations, N. B. Chapman and J. Shorter, eds., (Plenum, New York, 1972).

  12. 12.

    A. G. Burdeen, G. Collier, and J. Shorter,J. Chem. Soc. Perkin II 1627 (1976).

  13. 13.

    M. J. Kamlet and R. W. Taft,J. Am. Chem. Soc. 98, 377 (1976).

  14. 14.

    M. J. Kamlet, J. L. M. Abboud, M. H. Abraham, and R. W. Taft,J. Org. Chem. 48, 2877 (1983).

  15. 15.

    I. Persson,Pure Appl. Chem. 58, 1153 (1986).

  16. 16.

    P.-C. Maria and J.-F. Gal,J. Phys. Chem.,89, 1296 (1985).

  17. 17.

    G. Gritzner,J. Electroanal. Chem. 144, 259 (1983).

  18. 18.

    E. J. Baran,Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 382(1), 80 (1971).

  19. 19.

    G. Gritzner and J. Kuta,Pure Appl. Chem. 56, 461 (1984).

  20. 20.

    G. Gritzner,Inorg. Chim. Acta 24, 5 (1977).

  21. 21.

    B. G. Cox, G. R. Hedwig, A. J. Parker, and D. W. Watts,Aust. J. Chem. 27, 477 (1974).

  22. 22.

    J. Broadhead and P. J. Elving,Anal. Chem. 41, 1814 (1969).

  23. 23.

    A. Cisak and P. J. Elving,J. Electrochem. Soc. 110, 160 (1963).

  24. 24.

    G. Gritzner,Pure Appl. Chem. 12, 1743 (1988).

  25. 25.

    G. Gritzner,J. Phys. Chem. 90, 5478 (1986).

  26. 26.

    K. M. Kadish, L. A. Bottomley, S. Kelly, D. Schaeper, and L. R. Shive,Bioelectrochem. Bioenerg. 8, 213 (1981).

  27. 27.

    H.-J. Chuang, L.-L. Soong, G. E. Leroi, and A. I. Popov,J. Solution Chem. 18, 759 (1989).

  28. 28.

    G. Kraml and G. Gritzner,J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. I 81, 2875 (1985).

  29. 29.

    S. Sperker, G. Gsaller, H. Marek, and G. Gritzner,J. Solution Chem. 17, 35 (1988).

  30. 30.

    G. Gritzner and S. Sperker,J. Solution Chem. 17, 1133 (1988).

  31. 31.

    G. Gritzner,J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. I 84, 1047 (1988).

  32. 32.

    U. Mayer, V. Gutmann, and W. Gerger,Monatsh. Chem. 106, 1235 (1975).

  33. 33.

    K. Dimroth, C. Reichardt, T. Siepmann, and F. Bohlmann,Justus Liebigs Ann. Chem. 661, 1 (1963).

  34. 34.

    C. Reichardt,Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 4, 29 (1965).

  35. 35.

    C. Reichardt and E. Harbusch-Görnert,Justus Liebigs. Ann. Chem. 721 (1983).

  36. 36.

    R. W. Soukup and R. Schmid,J. Chem. Ed. 62, 459 (1985).

  37. 37.

    M. Pirklbauer and G. Gritzner, to be published.

  38. 38.

    A. J. Parker and R. Alexander,J. Am. Chem. Soc. 90, 3313 (1968).

  39. 39.

    R. W. Taft and M. J. Kamlet,J. Am. Chem. Soc. 98, 2886 (1976).

  40. 40.

    M. J. Kamlet, J. L. Abboud, and R. W. Taft,J. Am. Chem. Soc. 99, 6027 (1977).

  41. 41.

    I. M. Kolthoff and M. K. Chantooni, Jr.,J. Phys. Chem. 76, 2024 (1972).

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to G. Gritzner.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Gritzner, G., Sperker, S. Solvent donor and acceptor properties of pyridine. J Solution Chem 19, 543–553 (1990). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00647028

Download citation

Key words

  • Polarography and cyclic voltammetry
  • Gibbs energies of transfer
  • bis(biphenyl)chromium assumption
  • tetraphenylarsonium tetraphenylborate assumption
  • solvatochromic dyes