Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

What are numbers?

  • 57 Accesses

  • 1 Citations

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. 1.

    Aristotle: 1976, Metaphysics (Books M and N), trans. Julia Annas (Clarendon Press, Oxford).

  2. 2.

    Brouwer, L. E. J.: 1964, ‘Intuitionism and formalism’ translated in Benacerraf and Putnam, Philosophy of Mathematics, Selected Readings (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey).

  3. 3.

    Euclid: 1956, Elements, trans. T. L. Heath (Dover, New York).

  4. 4.

    Heath, T. L.: 1921, A History of Greek Mathematics (Clarendon, Oxford).

  5. 5.

    Newton, Isaac: 1967, Universal Arithmetic or, A Treatise of Arithmetical Composition and Resolution, reprinted in D. T. Whiteside: The Mathematical Works of Isaac Newton, Volume 2 (Johnson Reprint Corporation, London).

  6. 6.

    Zermelo, E.: ‘Sur les ensembles finis et le principle de l'induction complðe’, Acta Mathematica 32, pp. 185–193.

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Mayberry, J. What are numbers?. Philos Stud 54, 317–354 (1988).

Download citation