Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

High resolution spectroscopy in the far UV: Observations of the interstellar medium by IMAPS on ORFEUS-SPAS

  • 43 Accesses

  • 22 Citations

Abstract

The Interstellar Medium Absorption Profile Spectrograph (IMAPS) is an objectivegrating, echelle spectrograph built to observe the spectra of bright, hot stars over the spectral region 950–1150Å, below the wavelength coverage of HST. This instrument has a high wavelength resolving power, making it especially well suited for studies of interstellar absorption lines. Following a series of sounding rocket flights in the 1980's, IMAPS flew on its first Shuttle-launched orbital mission in September 1993, as a partner in the ORFEUS-SPAS program sponsored by the US and German Space Agencies, NASA and DARA.

On ORFEUS-SPAS, IMAPS spent one day of orbital time observing the spectra of 10 O- and early B-type stars. In addition to outlining how IMAPS works, we document some special problems that had an influence on the data, and we explain the specific steps in data reduction that were employed to overcome them. This discussion serves as a basic source of information for people who may use archival data from this flight, as well as those who are interested in some specific properties of the data that will be presented in forthcoming research papers.

IMAPS is scheduled to fly once again on ORFEUS-SPAS in late 1996. On this flight, 50% of the observing time available for IMAPS and two other spectrographs on the mission will be available to guest observers.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Bertoldi, F., & Jenkins, E. B. 1992, ApJ, 388, 495

  2. Blades, J. C., Wynne-Jones, I., & Wayte, R. C. 1980, MNRAS, 193, 849

  3. Boggess, A., Bohlin, R. C., Evans, D. C., Freeman, H. R., Gull, T. R., Heap, S. R., Klinglesmith, D. A., Longanecker, G. R., Sparks, W., West, D. K., Holm, A. V., Perry, P. M., Schiffer, F. H., Turnrose, B. E., Wu, C. C., Lane, A. L., Linsky, J. L., Savage, B. D., Benvenuti, P., Cassatella, A., Clavel, J., Heck, A., Macchetto, F., Penston, M. V., Selvelli, P. L., Dunford, E., Gondhalekar, P., Oliver, M. B., Sandford, M. C. W., Stickland, D., Boksenberg, A., Coleman, C. I., Snijders, M. A. J., & Wilson, R. 1978a, Nat, 275, 377

  4. Boggess, A., Carr, F. A., Evans, D. C., Fischel, D., Freeman, H. R., Fuechsel, C. F., Klinglesmith, D. A., Krueger, V. L., Longanecker, G. W., Moore, J. V., Pyle, E. J., Rebar, F., Sizemore, K. O., Sparks, W., Underhill, A. B., Vitagliano, H. D., West, D. K., Macchetto, F., Fitton, B., Barker, P. J., Dunford, E., Gondhalekar, P. M., Hall, J. E., Harrison, V. A. W., Oliver, M. B., Sandford, M. C. W., Vaughan, P. A., Ward, A. K., Anderson, B. E., Boksenberg, A., Coleman, C. I., Snijders, M. A. J., & Wilson, R. 1978b, Nat, 275, 372

  5. Bottema, M. 1981, in Periodic Structures, Gratings, Moiré Patterns, and Diffraction Phenomena, ed. C. H. Chi, E. G. Loewen & C. L. O'Bryan III (Bellingham: SPIE), p. 171

  6. Carruthers, G. R. 1981, in Ultraviolet and Vacuum Ultraviolet Systems, ed. W. R. Hunter (Bellingham: SPIE), p. 112

  7. — 1987, Appl. Opt., 26, 2925

  8. Carruthers, G. R., & Seeley, T. D. 1992, in Instrumentation for Planetary and Terrestrial Atmospheric Remote Sensing, ed. S. Chakrabarti & A. B. Christensen (Bellingham: SPIE), p. 322

  9. Davidsen, A. F., Long, K. S., Durrance, S. T., Blair, W. P., Bowers, C. W., Conard, S. J., Feldman, P. D., Ferguson, H. C., Fountain, G. H., Kimble, R. A., Kriss, G. A., Moos, H. W., & Potocki, K. A. 1992, ApJ, 392, 264

  10. Grewing, M., Kramer, G., Appenzeller, I., Eberhard, N., Gringel, W., Kalble, A., Kappelmann, N., Krautter, J., Mandel, H., Ostreicher, R., Petrik, J., & Riegger, J. 1991, in Extreme Ultraviolet Astronomy, ed. R. F. Malina & S. Bowyer (New York: Pergamon), p. 437

  11. Hoffleit, D., & Jaschek, C. 1982, The Bright Star Catalogue, (New Haven: Yale U. Obs.)

  12. Holberg, J. B., Forrester, W. T., Shemansky, D. E., & Barry, D. C. 1982, ApJ 257, 656

  13. Horne, K. 1986, PASP, 98, 609

  14. Hurwitz, M., & Bowyer, S. 1991, in Astrophysics at FUV and EUV Wavelengths (Proc. COSPAR 28th Plenary Meeting), ed. B. Aschenbach (Oxford: Pergammon), p. 217

  15. Jenkins, E. B. 1995, in Laboratory and Astronomical High Resolution Spectra, ed. A. J. Sauval, R. Blomme, & N. Grevesse (San Francisco: Astronomical Society of the Pacific), p. 453

  16. Jenkins, E. B., Joseph, C. L., Long, D., Zucchino, P. M., Carruthers, G. R., Bottema, M. & Delamere, W. A. 1988, in Ultraviolet Technology II, ed. R. E. Huffman (Bellingham: The International Society for Optical Engineering), p. 213

  17. Jenkins, E. B., Lees, J. F., van Dishoeck, E. F., & Wilcots, E. M. 1989, ApJ, 343, 785

  18. Joseph, C. L. 1995, Experimental Astronomy, 6, 97

  19. Joseph, C. L., & Jenkins, E. B. 1991, ApJ, 368 201

  20. Kondo, Y., Wamsteker, W., Boggess, A., Grewing, M., de Jager, C., Lane, A. L., Linsky, J. L., & Wilson, R. 1989, Exploring the Universe with the IUE Satellite, (Dordrecht: Kluwer)

  21. Lampton, M. L. 1991, in Extreme Ultraviolet Astronomy, ed. R. F. Malina & S. Bowyer (New York: Pergamon Press), p. 353

  22. Linsky, J. L., Boggess, A., Bowyer, S., Caldwell, J., Cash, W., Cohen, J., Dupree, A., Green, R., Jenkins, E., Jura, M., Leckrone, D., Moos, H. W., Savage, B., Shull, M., Snow, T., Timothy, J. G., Weiler, E., & York, D. 1982, in Proceedings Third European IUE Conference, ed. E. Rolfe, A. Heck, & B. Battrick (Paris: ESA), p. 473

  23. Lowrance, J. L. 1985, in Photo-electronic Image Devices, ed. B. L. Morgan (London: Academic), p. 591

  24. Lowrance, J. L., & Carruthers, G. R. 1981, in Ultraviolet and Vacuum Ultraviolet Systems, ed. W. R. Hunter, (Bellingham: SPIE), p. 123

  25. Meier, R. R. 1991, Space Sci. Rev., 58, 1

  26. Meier, R. R., & Mange, P. 1970, Planetary and Space Science, 18, 803

  27. —, 1973, Planetary and Space Science, 21, 309

  28. Moos, W., & Friedman, S. D. 1991, in Extreme Ultraviolet Astronomy, ed. R. F. Malina & S. Bowyer (New York: Pergamon), p. 457

  29. Morton, D. C. 1991, ApJS, 77, 119

  30. Rogerson, J. B., Spitzer, L., Drake, J. F., Dressler, K., Jenkins, E. B., Morton, D. C., & York, D. G. 1973, ApJ, 181, L97

  31. Savage, B. D., & Sembach, K. R. 1991, ApJ, 379, 245

  32. Siegmund, O. H. W., Everman, E., Vallerga, J. V., Labov, S., Bixler, J., & Lampton, M. 1986, in Ultraviolet Technology, ed. R. E. Huffman (Bellingham: SPIE), p. 117

  33. Spitzer, L., & Jenkins, E. B. 1975, ARA&A, 13, 133

  34. Spitzer, L., Jr., & Zabriskie, F. R. 1959, PASP, 71, 412

  35. Strong, J. 1958, Concepts of Classical Optics, (San Francisco: Freeman)

  36. Wayte, R. C., Wynne-Jones, I., & Blades, J. C. 1978, MNRAS, 182, 5P

  37. Welty, D. E., Hobbs, L. M., & Kulkarni, V. P. 1994, ApJ, 436, 152

  38. Woodgate, B., & STIS Team 1992, in Science with the Hubble Space Telescope, ed. P. Benvenuti & E. Schreier (Garching bei München: ESO), p. 525

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Jenkins, E.B., Reale, M.A., Zucchino, P.M. et al. High resolution spectroscopy in the far UV: Observations of the interstellar medium by IMAPS on ORFEUS-SPAS. Astrophys Space Sci 239, 315–360 (1996). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00645785

Download citation

Key words

  • detectors
  • spectrographs
  • data analysis
  • ultraviolet spectroscopy
  • high resolution spectroscopy
  • interstellar medium