Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Evolution of a cloudy protogalaxy interacting with an early galactic wind and galaxy formation

Abstract

We argue that a combined evidence from galactic and extragalactic studies suggests that a major star formation in giant galaxies is preceded by an evolutionary phase at which a strong galactic wind driven by the initial burst of star formation enriches the gaseous protogalaxy with metals and heats it up, so that the latter turns over from contraction to expansion. The result is the ejection of enriched material from the outer part of the protogalaxy into the intergalactic space, while the inner part, after a delay of about one to a few Gyr, finally contracts and cools down to form the galactic major stellar component (the ‘hot’ model of galaxy formation). The paper presents a specific mechanism to produce a hot protogalaxy according to which an early galactic wind is imparting energy and momentum into a collapsing protogalaxy whose mass is contained mainly in clouds and only a small portion is in the intercloud gas that provides pressure confinement for the clouds. The model is then capable of accounting for the nearly equal mass and iron abundance in cluster giant galaxies and the intracluster gas provided the observationally plausible input parameters for giant galaxies and early galactic winds are adopted. It also predicts the formation of long-lived X-ray coronae with characteristics similar to those observed around giant ellipticals.

The model specifies a characteristic length-scale that can be very naturally interpreted as a size for a stellar system to come; a very encouraging result is that it perfectly fits in with a typical size of giant ellipticals.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Arimoto, N. and Yoshii, Y.: 1987,Astron. Astrophys. 173, 23.

  2. Arimoto, N. and Yoshii, Y.: 1989,Astron. Astrophys. 224, 361.

  3. Baum, S. A. and Heckman, T. M.: 1989,Astrophys. J. 336, 681.

  4. Bergeron, J., Durret, F., and Boksenberg, A.: 1983,Astron. Astrophys. 127, 322.

  5. Berman, V. G. and Suchkov, A. A.: 1988,Astrofizika 28, 85 (English transl.Astrophysics 28, 50).

  6. Berman, V. G. and Suchkov, A. A.: 1989,Astrofizika 30, 48 (English transl.Astrophysics 30, No 1.

  7. Bookbinder, J., Cowie, L. L., Krolik, J. H., Ostriker, J. P., and Rees, M.: 1980,Astrophys. J. 237, 647.

  8. Cowie, L. L., McKee, C. F., and Ostriker, J. P.: 1981,Astrophys. J. 247, 908.

  9. Crawford, C. S. and Fabian, A. C.: 1989,Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. 239, 219.

  10. Dalgarno, A. and McCray, R. A.: 1972,Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 10, 375.

  11. David, L. P., Forman, W., and Jones, C.: 1988,Bull. Amer. Astron. Soc. 20, 741.

  12. Dekel, A. and Silk, J.: 1986,Astrophys. J. 303, 39.

  13. Faber, S. M. 1977, in B. M. Tinsley and R. B. Larson (eds.),The Evolution of Galaxies and Stellar Populations, Yale University Obs., p. 157.

  14. Fabian, A. C.: 1988, in A. C. Fabian (ed.)Cooling Flows in Clusters and Galaxies, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Holland, p. 315.

  15. Forbes, D. A., Crawford, C. S., Fabian, A. C., and Jonston, R. M.: 1990,Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. (in press).

  16. Forman, W., Jones, C., and Tucker, W.: 1985,Astrophys. J. 293, 102.

  17. Freeman, K.: 1987,Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 25, 603.

  18. Gilmore, G., Wyse, R. F. G., and Kuijken, K.: 1989,Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 27, 555.

  19. Heckman, T. M., Armus, L., and Miley, G. K.: 1987,Astron. J. 93, 276.

  20. Heckman, T. M., Baum, S. A., van Breugel, M. J. M., and McCarthy, P.: 1989,Astrophys. J. 338, 48.

  21. Marsakov, V. A. and Suchkov, A. A.: 1976,Pis'ma Astron. Zh. 2, 381.

  22. Marsakov, V. A. and Suchkov, A. A.: 1977,Astron. Zh. 54, 1232.

  23. Marsakov, V. A., Suchkov, A. A., and Shevelev, Yu. G.: 1990,Astrophys. Space Sci. 172, 51.

  24. Mathews, W. G.: 1989,Astron. J. 97, 42.

  25. McClure, R. D. and Twarog, B. A.: 1977, in: E. Basinska-Grzesik and M. Mayor (eds.), ‘Chemical and Dynamical Evolution of our Galaxy’IAU Colloq. 45, 193.

  26. Noh, W. F.: 1987,J. Computational Phys. 72, 78.

  27. Norris, J. E. and Green, E. M.: 1989,Astrophys. J. 337, 272.

  28. Ostriker, J. P. and Tuah, T. X.: 1975,Astrophys. J. 202, 353.

  29. Pedelty, J. A., Rudnick, L., McCarthy, P. J., and Spinrad, H.: 1989,Astron. J. 93, 647.

  30. Raymond, J. C., Cox, D. P., and Smith, B. W.: 1976,Astrophys. J. 204, 290.

  31. Sandadge, A.: 1986,Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 24, 421.

  32. Searle, L. and Zinn, R.: 1978,Astrophys. J. 225, 357.

  33. Spinrad, H. 1987, in J. Bergeron, D. Kunth, B. Rocca-Volmerange, and J. Tran Than Van (eds.),High-Redshifted and Primeval Galaxies, Édition Frontières, p. 59.

  34. Suchkov, A. A.: 1977,Pis'ma Astron. J. 3, 204.

  35. Suchkov, A. A.: 1981,Astrophys. Space Sci. 77, 3.

  36. Suchkov, A. A.: 1986,Comm. Special Obs. USSR 50, 91.

  37. Suchkov, A. A.: 1988,Astron. Zh. 65, 1 (English transl. inSoviet Astron. 32, 1).

  38. Suchkov, A. A.: 1989,Pis'ma Astron. Zh. 15, 216 (English transl. inSoviet Astron. Letters 15, No. 2).

  39. Suchkov, A. A. and Schekinov, Yu. A.: 1979,Astron. Zh. 56, 1179 (English transl. inSoviet Astron. 23, No. 6).

  40. Suchkov, A. A., Berman, V. G., and Mishurov, Yu. N: 1987,Astron. Zh. 64, 708 (English transl.Soviet. Astron. 31, No. 4).

  41. Tytler, D.: 1987,Astrophys. J. 321, 49, 69.

  42. Vader, J. P.: 1986,Astrophys. J. 305, 669.

  43. Watson, M. G., Stronger, V., and Griffith, R. E.: 1985,Astrophys. J. 286, 144.

  44. Wyse, R. F. G. and Silk, J.: 1987,Astrophys. J. 319, L1.

  45. Yoshii, Y. and Arimoto, N.: 1987,Astron. Astrophys. 188, 13.

  46. Zaguskin, V. L.: 1979,Metody rascheta zadach mekhaniki sploshnoi sredy, Rostov University Publ. (in Russian).

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Berman, B.G., Suchkov, A.A. Evolution of a cloudy protogalaxy interacting with an early galactic wind and galaxy formation. Astrophys Space Sci 184, 169–192 (1991). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00642967

Download citation

Keywords

  • Star Formation
  • Initial Burst
  • Pressure Confinement
  • Stellar System
  • Galaxy Formation