Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 26, Issue 4, pp 1113–1118 | Cite as

Retardation of grain boundary reactions in Ag-Pd-Cu alloys by additions of small amounts of other elements

  • Isao Kawashima
  • Yoshima Araki
  • Hiroki Ohno


The grain-boundary reactions in Ag-25 mass% Pd-10 mass% Cu alloys with 1 mass% aluminium, cobalt, tin, chromium or indium, were investigated by optical microscopy, electrical resistivity, and hardness tests. Addition of tin and chromium retarded grain-boundary reactions. The growth rate of nodules with tin addition was 1/18 of the alloy without additons. Grain-interior reactions are accelerated with chromium, tin and indium addition, with chromium the most effective. The activation energies for the grain-interior and grain-boundary reactions are 192 to 196 and 144 to 208 kJ mol−1, respectively. Additions retard the growth but not the nucleation at the grain boundary. It is concluded that elements which form stable precipitates in the grains retard the grain-boundary reaction.


Polymer Aluminium Nodule Growth Rate Microscopy 
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Copyright information

© Chapman and Hall Ltd 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Isao Kawashima
    • 1
  • Yoshima Araki
    • 1
  • Hiroki Ohno
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Dental Materials Science, School of DentistryHigashi-Nippon-Gakuen UniversityHokkaidoJapan

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