Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 26, Issue 16, pp 4411–4415 | Cite as

Fabrication of fine-grain piezoelectric ceramics using reactive calcination

  • S. Kim
  • G. S. Lee
  • T. R. Shrout
  • S. Venkataramani


Fine-grain piezoelectric ceramics with the formula Pb(Zr0.53Ti0.47)O3(PZT) were prepared by a reactive calcination process. Using conventional materials and processing techniques, highly reactive powders of PZT were achieved by calcining to or near the point of maximum volume expansion, whereby associated morphological changes resulted in highly reactive powder. Upon milling, powders <0.3 μm were readily obtained allowing densification at temperatures <1000°C. The B-site precursor method, whereby the ZrO2 and TiO2 oxides were pre-reacted prior to reaction with PbO, further enhanced reactivity by eliminating intermediate reactions and subsequent phase(s) which can hinder densification and overall homogeneity. Highly dense piezoceramics with grain sizes ∼1 to 2 μm exhibiting dielectric and piezoelectric characteristics comparable to conventionally prepared large grain size materials were obtained.


Grain Size TiO2 Milling Calcination Morphological Change 
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Copyright information

© Chapman & Hall 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Kim
    • 1
  • G. S. Lee
    • 1
  • T. R. Shrout
    • 1
  • S. Venkataramani
    • 2
  1. 1.Materials Research LaboratoryPennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA
  2. 2.General Electric Co.SchenectadyUSA

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