Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 27, Issue 10, pp 2731–2733 | Cite as

Valence determination of titanium and iron using electron energy loss spectroscopy

  • M. Sankararaman
  • D. Perry


A method of determining the valence state of titanium and iron in ceramic materials using the electron energy loss spectroscopy is given. In this method the L2,3 loss edges of a standard are determined and the unknown valence state is determined by observing its spectrum and comparing it to the established standard.


Iron Polymer Spectroscopy Titanium Energy Loss 
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Copyright information

© Chapman & Hall 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Sankararaman
    • 1
  • D. Perry
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Materials EngineeringPurdue UniversityWest LafayetteUSA

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