Advertisement

Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 29, Issue 16, pp 4357–4370 | Cite as

A kinetic and morphological study of the coking of some heat-resistant steels

  • D. R. G. Mitchell
  • D. J. Young
Papers

Abstract

The coking behaviour of a range of austenitic, heat-resistant steels has been examined in the temperature range 700-1000°C. At and below 800°C, catalytic coke in the form of bundles of filaments formed at localized defect sites in the carbide scales. A wide range in weight-gain kinetics resulted from the differing efficacy of the non-catalytic carbide scales in excluding carbon from the catalytically active substrate. At and above 900°C, catalytic coke formation gave way to pyrolytic coke formation and internal carburization became significant. Parabolic kinetics resulted from the fact that internal carburization was rate-determining. Carburizing alloys gained weight an order of magnitude faster than did alloys protected by oxide films. This was a consequence of dissolution of carbon into the alloy directly from the gas stream being much faster than the rate of coke formation on the alloy surface. Oxide-protected alloys all gained weight at a similar rate, the rate being that of coke deposition on coke. Oxide films containing aluminium were more effective in excluding carbon from the alloy than chromium-containing oxides. However, under reducing conditions, preformed oxide films were not beneficial in limiting carburization in the longer term, because they were prone to spalling, cracking and conversion to non-protective carbide.

Keywords

Carbide Oxide Film Carburization Localize Defect Alloy Surface 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    G. L. Swales, in “The behaviour of High Temperature Alloys in Agressive Environments”. Book 266/EUR 6814 (The Metals Society, London, 1980) p. 45.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    H. J. Grabke and I. Wolf, Mater. Sci. Eng. 87 (1987) 23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    A. Schnaas and H. J. Grabke, Oxid. Metals. 12 (1978) 387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    T. A. Ramanarayanan and R. Petkovic-Luton, Corrosion 37 (1981) 712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    H. Lewis, Br. Corros. J. 3 (1968) 166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    J. K. Stanley, in “High Temperature Gas-Metal Reactions in Mixed Environments”, edited by J. A. Jansen and Z. A. Foroulis (Metals Society of AIME, New York, 1973) p. 143.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    R. A. Perkins, in “Proceedings of the International Conference on the Behaviour of High Temperature Alloys in Agressive Environments”, Petten, Netherlands, October 1979.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    R. H. Kane, Corrosion 37 (1981) 187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    J. F. Norton, L. Blidgen, S. Canetoli and P. D. Frampton, Werkstoffe Karros. 32 (1981) 467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    G. H. Meir, W. C. Coons and R. A. Perkins, Oxid. Metals 17 (1982) 235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    G. M. Smith, D. J. Young and D. L. Trimm, ibid. 18 (1982) 229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    P. Thomas, D. J. Young and D. L. Trimm, in “Proceedings of the 9th International Congress on Metallic Corrosion”, Vol. 1 (1984) p. 58.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    P. J. Smith, O. Van der Biest and J. Corish, Oxid. Metals 24 (1985) 47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    S. P. Kinniard, D. J. Young and D. L. Trimm, ibid. 26 (1986) 417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    R. Petkovic-Luton and T. A. Ramanarayanan, ibid. 34 (1990) 381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    D. R. G. Mitchell and D. J. Young, “Corrosion Asia Conference”, NACE, Singapore, September 1992, paper 189.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    R. T. K. Baker, D. J. C. Yates and J. A. Dumesic, in “Coke Formation on Metal Surfaces”, edited by L. F. Albright and R. T. K. Baker (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1982) p. 1.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    D. E. Brown, J. T. K. Clark, A. I. Foster, J. J. McCarroll and M. L. Sims, ibid.“ p. 23.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    A. Holmen, O. A. Lindvaag and D. L. Trimm, ibid.“ p. 45Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    P. R. S. Jackson, D. L. Trimm and D. J. Young, J. Mater. Sci. 21 (1986) 3125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Idem, ibid. 21 (1986) 4376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    D. L. Trimm, Catal. Rev. Sci. Eng. 16 (1977) 155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    D. R. G. MITCHELL, D. J. YOUNG and W. KLEEMAN, in “Corrosion '92”, NACE Annual Conference, Tennessee (NACE, 1992) p. 302.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    D. R. G. MITCHELL and D. J. YOUNG, unpublished work.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    D. R. G. MITCHELL, D. J. YOUNG and W. KLEEMAN, in “Proceedings of the 12th International Corrosion Congress”, Vol. 4 (NACE, 1993) p. 2625.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    P. Tomaszewicz, P. R. S. Jackson, D. L. Trimm and D. J. Young, J. Mater. Sci. 20 (1985) 4035.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    J. C. Marek and L. F. Albright, in “Coke Formation on Metal Surfaces”, edited by L. F. Albright and R. T. K. Baker (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1982) p. 123.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    M. Audier, A. Oberlin and M. Coulon, J. Crystal Growth 55 (1981) 549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    A. M. Brown and M. P. Hill, in “Coke Formation on Metal Surfaces”, edited by L. F. Albright and R. T. K. Baker (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1982).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    A. I. Lacava, E. D. Fernandez-raone, L. L. Isaacs and M. Caraballo, ibid.“ p. 89.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    R. E. Smallman, in “Modern Physical Metallurgy”, 3rd Edn (Butterworth, London 1976) p. 357.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    S. Ando, Y. Nakayama and H. Kimura, ISIJ Int. 29 (1989) 511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    I. Wolfe and H. J. Grabke, Solid State Commun. 54 (1985) 5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    W. F. Chu and A. Rahmel, Oxid. Metals 15 (1981) 331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Chapman & Hall 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. R. G. Mitchell
    • 1
  • D. J. Young
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Materials Science and EngineeringUniversity of New South WalesKensingtonAustralia

Personalised recommendations