Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 31, Issue 7, pp 1937–1943 | Cite as

The mechanism of the formation of boron ineffective zone and its effect on the properties of Ultralow carbon bainitic steels

  • Rong-Iuan Hsieh
  • Shyi-Chin Wang
  • Horng-Yih Liou


In the manufacturing of ultralow carbon bainitic (ULCB) steels, boron is an alloying element which is essential to promote the desired bainitic transformation. In order to obtain this hardenability effect, boron must be in solution and it must segregate to the austenite grain boundary and where it decreases the contribution of the boundary's interfacial energy to ferrite nucleation. During the development of ULCB steels in China Steel Corporation, a small boron ineffective zone was found at the centre of steel plates. From electron-probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA) and boron autoradiograph analysis, it was found that the formation of the boron ineffective zone was due to the centre-line segregation of inclusions which strongly combined with boron and formed a boron-free zone in its vicinity. The microstructure of the boron ineffective zone was a conventional ferrite with a strength which was much lower than that of the surrounding bainite. This resulted in crack separation in the tensile and impact specimens. It was found from a hydrogen-induced-cracking (HIC) test, that the HICs had a propensity to propagate along the boron ineffective zone. From a welding y-grooved test, a higher cold-cracking sensitivity at this boron ineffective zone was also found.


Welding Ferrite Austenite Boron Bainite 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    A. P. Coldren, Y. E. Smith and R. L. Cryderman, Proceedings of an AIME Symposium on Processing and the Properties of Low Carbon Steel (Cleveland, 1972) p. 163.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    C. I. Gracia and A. J. Deardo, “Microalloyed HSLA steels” (ASM International, Chicago, 1988) p. 291.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    B. M. Kapadia, R. M. Brown and W. J. Murphy, Trans. AIME 242 (1968) 1687.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    P. Maitrepierre, D. Thivellier and J. Rofesvesnis, “Hardenability concepts with applications to steel” (1978) p. 421.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    M. Saeki, M. F. Kurosawa and M. Matsuo, Trans. ISIJ. 26 (1986) 1017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    M. Tanino, M. S. Funaki, H. Komotsu and Y. Q. Zhang, ibid.—. 21 (1981) 231.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    J. M. Oblak and R. F. Hehemann, “Microalloyed HSLA steel” (American Society for Metals, Chicago, IL, 1988) p. 69.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    V. Biss and R. L. Cryderman, Metall. Trans. 2 (1971) 2267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    S. Dionne, M. R. Krishnadev, L. E. Collins and J. D. Boyd, “Accelerated cooling of rolled steels” (American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical and Petroleum Engineers, Winnipeg, 1987) p. 71.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    L. E. Collins, J. D. Boyd, J. A. Jackman and L. D. Bayley, “Microalloyed HSLA steels” (American Society for Metals, Chicago, 1988) p. 607.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    T. Yutori and R. Ogawa, in “International Conference on Steel Rolling”, The Iron & Steel Institute of Japan, Tokyo, 1980, p. 992.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    D. L. Bourell, Met. Trans A 14 (1983) 2487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Y. Nakai, H. Kurahashi, T. Emi and O. Haida, Trans. ISIJ 19 (1979) 401.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    E. M. Moore and J. J. Warga, Materials performance 15 (1976) 17.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    J. M. Sawhill and T. Weda, Welding J. 54 (1975) 1s.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    P. J. Boothby, Metal Construction 8 (1985) 508R.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    M. Inagaki, Y. Ito and Y. Komizo, IIW, Doc IX1412- 86, (International Institute of Welding) 7 (1986).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Chapman & Hall 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rong-Iuan Hsieh
    • 1
  • Shyi-Chin Wang
    • 1
  • Horng-Yih Liou
    • 1
  1. 1.Steel and Aluminium Research and Development DepartmentChina Steel CorporationTaiwan

Personalised recommendations