Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 31, Issue 17, pp 4671–4677 | Cite as

Crystallinity variations in kaolinite induced by grinding and pressure treatments

  • A. La Iglesia
  • A. J. Aznar


Kaolinite samples treated with uniaxial pressures higher than 0.1 GPa or grinding times greater than 0.3 h show changes in their crystallinity. These changes are easily detected by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique and can be quantified from Hinckley (HI), Lietard (R2) and also reference intensity ratio (RIR) index studies. The sensitivity of these indices to the Crystallinity changes is; HI>RIR>R2. In the range of pressures and grinding times considered, these values can be diminished by 50%. The variations in these indices with either the pressure or grinding time follow logarithmic laws whose correlation coefficients are closed to unity. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy and thermal analysis studies show low sensitivity to the changes introduced by grinding or pressure. Nevertheless, thermal gravimetric curves confirm the decrease in the dehydroxylation starting point of about 100°C for the pressed and ground samples. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals important changes in kaolinite particle morphologies after pressure and grinding treatments. The samples compressed at 0.1, 0.32, 0.85, 1.0 and 2.0 GPa show a large number of defects (fractures, bending, deformations and rolling of layers, glide and rotation of the shell). The ground samples show grain boundaries, dislocations, twins and rounded voids. These defects are responsible for the decrease in crystallinity of the kaolinite samples shown in the XRD and IR studies.


Transmission Electron Microscopy Thermal Analysis Kaolinite Material Processing Analysis Study 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    W. D. Laws and J. B. Page, Soil Sci. 62 (1946) 319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    S. J. Gregg, K. F. Hill and T. V. Parker, J. Appl. Chem. 4 (1954) 666.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    H. Kodama and M. Jaakkimainen, in Proceedings International Clay Conference Bologna, Pavia 1981, edited by H. Van Olphen and F. Veniale (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1982) p. 399.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    S. De Luca and M. Slaugther, Amer. Miner. 70 (1985) 149.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    R. T. Tettenhorst and C. E. Corbató, Clay Minerals 21 (1986) 971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    H. Kodama, L. S. Kotlyar and J. A. Ripmeester, Clays Clay Min. 37 (1989) 364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    F. Gonzalez García, M. T. Ruiz Abrio and M. Gonzalez Rodriguez, Clay Minerals 26 (1991) 549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    E. Kristóf, Z. Juhász and I. Vassányi, Clays Clay Min. 41 (1993).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    K. J. Range, A. Range and A. Weiss, in Proceedings International Clay Conference, Tokyo, 1969, edited by L. Heller (Israel Univ. Press, Jerusalem, 1969) p. 3.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    A. La Iglesia, Clay Minerals 28 (1993) 311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    E. Galán, Ph.D. thesis, Univ. Complutense. Spain (1972).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    S. Leguey and M. Doval, in 6th Meet. Europ. Clay Groups, “Guidebook for Excursions”, Sevilla, September 1987, edited by J. L. Perez-Rodriguez and E. Galan (Ortega, 1987) 138.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    S. H. Patterson and H. H. Murray, “Industrial minerals and rocks” (AIME, New York, 1975).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    D. N. Hinckley, Clays Clay Min. 13 (1963) 229.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    O. Lietard, Ph.D. thesis. (Nancy, 1977).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    B. L. Davis and D. K. Smith, Power Diffraction 3 (1988) 205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    B. L. Davis, D. K. Smith and M. A. Holomany, ibid. 4 (1989) 201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    C. A. Hubbard, E. H. Evans and D. K. Smith, J. Appl. Cryst. 9 (1976) 169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    V. C. Farmer and J. D. Russell, Spectrochim. Acta 20 (1964) 1149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    G. W. Brindley, C. C. Kao, J. L. Harrison, M. Lipsicas and R. Raythatha, Clays Clay Min. 34 (1986) 239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    V. A. Bell, V. R. Citro and G. D. Hodge, ibid. 39 (1991) 290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Chapman & Hall 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. La Iglesia
    • 1
  • A. J. Aznar
    • 2
  1. 1.Facultad de Ciencias GeologicasInstituto Geologia Economica CSICMadridSpain
  2. 2.E.P.S., Univ. Carlos III de MadridLeganesSpain

Personalised recommendations