Advertisement

Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 29, Issue 10, pp 2761–2766 | Cite as

Nucleation and growth mechanism of diamond during hot-filament chemical vapour deposition

  • J. Singh
Papers

Abstract

High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) was employed to study the nucleation and subsequent growth mechanism of crystalline diamond grown on copper TEM grids by the hot-filament chemical vapour deposition process. The HRTEM revealed direct evidence for the formation of a diamond-like amorphous carbon layer 8–14 nm thick, in which small diamond microcrystallites about 2–5 nm across were embedded. These diamond microcrystallites were formed as a result of direct transformation of the diamond-like carbon into diamond. Large diamond crystallites were observed to grow from these microcrystallites. The diamond surface was found to be non-uniform. It is envisaged that the diamond microcrystallites present in the amorphous, diamond-like carbon layer provide nucleation sites on which the large diamond crystallites grew. A mechanism of diamond growth has been proposed, based on the experimental findings, and is consistent with available theoretical models and numerous experimental observations reported in the literature.

Keywords

HRTEM Growth Mechanism Amorphous Carbon Carbon Layer Chemical Vapour Deposition Process 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    K. Kobashi, K. Nishimura, Y. Kawate and T. Horiuchi, Phys. Rev. 38 (1988) 4067.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    C. E. Johnson, W. A. Weimer and F. M. Cerio, J. Mater. Res. 7 (1992) 1427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    L. R. Martin and M. W. Hill, J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 9 (1990) 621.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    N. Ohtake and M. Yoshikawa, J. Electrochem. Soc. 137 (1990) 717.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    C. M. Niu, G. Tsagaropoulos, J. Baglio, K. Dwight and A. Wold, J. Solid State Chem. 91 (1991) 47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    D. B. Fedoseev and B. V. Derjaguin, Arch. Nauki Mater. 7 (1986) 111.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    M. Frenklach and K. E. Spear, J. Mater. Res. 3 (1988) 133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    T. R. Anthony, in “The Physics and Chemistry of Carbides. Nitrides and Borides” edited by R. Freer (Kluwer Academic Press Netherlands, 1989) p. 133.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    B. Liu, G. S. Sandhu, N. R. Parikh, M. L. Swanson and W. K. Chu, Nucl. Instr. Methods Phys. Res. B45 (1990) 420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    K. V. Ravi, C. A. Koch, H. S. Hu and A. Joshi, J. Mater. Res. 5 2357 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    F. Tuinsta and J. L. Koening, J. Chem. Phys. 53 (1970) 1126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    R. J. Nemanich, L. Bergman, Y. M. Legrice and R. E. Shroder, in Materials Research Society Proceeding of the International Conference on “New Diamond Science & Technology”, edited by R. Messier, J. T. Glass, J. E. Butler and R. Roy (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, PA, 1990).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    R. J. Nemanich, J. T. Glass, G. Lucovsky and R. E. Shroder, J. Vac. Sci. Tech. A6 (1988) 1783.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    R. J. Nemanich, R. E. Shroder J. T. Glass and G. Lucovsky, in Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on the Physics of Semiconductors edited by W. Zowadski (Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Science, Warsaw, 1988) p. 515.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    S. A. Solin and R. J. Kobliska, in “Amorphous and Liquid Semiconductors” edited by J. Stuke (Taylor & Francis, London, 1974) p. 1251.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    R. E. Shroder, R. J. Nemanich and J. T. Glass, Phys. Rev. B 41 (1990) 3738.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    J. S. Kim, M. H. Kim, S. S. Park and J. Y. Lee, J. Appl. Phys. 67 (1990) 33354.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    W. Ostwald, Z. Physik Chem. 22 (1897) 287.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    A. S. Nowick, Comm. Solid State Phys. 2 (1969) 155.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    J. Singh and M. Vellaikal, Surf. coat. Tech. (to be published).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    G. H. M. Ma, B. E. Williams, J. T. Glass and J. T. Prater, Diamond Rel. Mater. 1 (1991) 25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Chapman & Hall 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Singh
    • 1
  1. 1.NASA - George C. Marchall Space Flight CenterHuntsvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations