Effect of hydrothermal synthesis environment on the particle morphology, chemistry and magnetic properties of barium hexaferrite
- 360 Downloads
Barium nitrate and iron nitrate have been used as precursors in the hydrothermal synthesis of barium hydroxide, iron oxide and barium hexaferrite sols under specified standard synthesis conditions (temperature, time, stirring, alkali concentration, amount of water and heating rate) as a function of the base species used during synthesis. The hydrothermal synthesis of barium hydroxide and iron oxide has been used to develop an understanding of the hydrothermal synthesis of barium hexaferrite from a mixture of their precursors. The investigation has shown that the nucleation and growth behaviour as well as the phase composition, thermal behaviour, particle size, particle-size distribution and magnetic properties are strong functions of the base species used. The electrostatic potential difference between the barium hydroxide and the iron oxide decreases with increasing cation size in the order NaOH, KOH, (C2H5)4NOH and NH4OH. Note the potential difference between the two sol species determines their tendency to coagulate into clusters; hence, the heterocoagulation will be greater when using NaOH or KOH than (C2H5)4NOH or NH4OH. Under the standard synthesis conditions, only NaOH and KOH are able to facilitate the formation of plate-like particles of barium hexaferrite. In contrast, ultrafine particles of iron oxide (10–20 nm) together with only a small amount of barium hexaferrite are produced when either NH4OH or (C2H5)4NOH base is used. The samples synthesized in the presence of the NaOH and KOH exhibit relatively higher saturation magnetization (i.e. 258 mT (39 e.m.u.g−1) and 215 mT (32 e.m.u.g−1), respectively) than those samples synthesized in the presence of NH4OH or (C2H5)4NOH which exhibit negligible saturation magnetization owing to the small amount of magnetic phase (BaFe12O19) present.
KeywordsBarium Iron Oxide Saturation Magnetization NH4OH Magnetic Phase
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 4.K. Higuchi, S. Naka and S. I. Hirano, Adv. Ceram. Mater. 1 (1986) 104.Google Scholar
- 12.T. Takada, Y. Ikeda, H. Yoshinaga and Y. Bando, in “Proceedings of the International Conference on Ferrites”, Japan (1970) pp. 275–8.Google Scholar
- 15.R. J. Hunter, “Zeta Potential in Colloid Science” (Academic Press, London, 1981).Google Scholar
- 16.C. W. Turner, Ceram. Bull. 70 (1991) 1487.Google Scholar