Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 29, Issue 12, pp 3193–3199 | Cite as

Structural changes of a pyrolytic graphite surface oxidized by electrochemical and plasma treatment

  • Masanori Nakahara
  • Yuzo Sanada


Pyrolytic graphite (PG) surfaces have been oxidized by electrochemical and oxygen plasma treatment. The oxidized PG surfaces have been studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflection spectroscopy (FT-IR-ATR). Oxidation caused by the plasma treatment results in a small increment of the oxygen: carbon (O/C) ratio, compared to electrochemical treatment. Moreover, the increment of the O/C ratio for the plasma treated edge surface is smaller than that for the plasma treated basal surface. A steep gradient in oxygen concentration exists within the edge subsurface of PG for samples subjected to severe electrochemical treatment, as compared to those samples subjected to plasma treatment. For the electrochemical treatment, carbonyl, carboxyl, ester and lactone groups are introduced to the edge surface following relatively severe treatment. The ratio of ester and lactone groups to carboxyl groups increases with the extent of electrochemical treatment. For plasma treated samples, other types of oxygen-containing groups, which are probably keto-enol groups, are added to the edge surface, unlike during electrochemical treatment.


Plasma Treatment Oxygen Plasma Reflection Spectroscopy Steep Gradient Small Increment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    M. Nakahara, Y. Nakayama, G. Katagiri and K. Shimizu, J. Mater. Sci. 26 (1991) 861.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    M. Nakahara and K. Shimizu, ibid. 27 (1992) 1207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    K. Shimizu, M. Nakahara and K. Noguchi, ibid. 27 (1992) 6234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    M. Nakahara and Y. Sanada, ibid. 28 (1993) 1327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    T. Norita, J. Matsui and H. S. Matsuda, in “Composite Interfaces”, edited by H. Ihida and J. L. Koenig (Elsevier, New York, 1986) p. 123.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    J. B. Donnet and G. Guilpain, Carbon 27 (1989) 749.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    R. Lazzaroni, S. Dujardin, J. Riga and J. J. Verbist, Surface Interface Anal. 7 (1985) 252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    M. Itoi and Y. Yamada, Polym. Compos. 13 (1992) 15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    L. Y. Yuan, S. S. Shyu and J. Y. Lai, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 42 (1991) 2525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    T. A. Devilbiss and J. P. Wightman, in “Composite Interfaces”,edited by H. Ihida and J. L. Koenig (Elsevier. New York, 1986) p. 307.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Y. Xie and P. M. A. Sherwood, Appl. Spectros. 44 (1990) 797.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    T. Takahagi and A. Ishitani, Carbon 22 (1984) 43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    C. Sellitti, J. L. Koenig and H. Ishida, ibid. 28 (1990) 221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    R. P. Vidano, D. B. Fischbach, L. J. Willis and T. M. Loehr, Solid State Commun. 39 (1981) 341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    I. M. Luk'yanov, A. V. Shchukarev, E. P. Smirnov and V. B. Aleskovskii, Theor. Exp. Chem. 25 (1989) 454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    K. Wartersson, Comp. Sci. Technol. 22 (1985) 223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Idem., ibid. 23 (1985) 303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    C. Sellitti, J. L. Koenig and H. Ishida, Appl. Spectrosc. 44 (1990) 830.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    C. Kozlowski and P. M. A. Sherwood, J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans, I 81 (1985) 2745.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Y. Xie and P. M. A. Sherwood, Chem. Mater. 2 (1990) 293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Chapman & Hall 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Masanori Nakahara
    • 1
  • Yuzo Sanada
    • 1
  1. 1.Metals Research Institute, Faculty of EngineeringHokkaido UniversitySapporo 060Japan

Personalised recommendations